Mayapán is a Mayan ruin city in the Mexican state of Yucatán in Central America. The name " Mayapán " means in Nahuatl as much as ' among the Maya ", which given by Diego de Landa word description Pendón de la Maya (Mayan flag ) fails to recognize the nature of the local suffix - pan. The preferred from the Chilam Balam Chronicles name is I Paa and refers to the characteristic town wall. The city was inhabited from about 1050 to after 1400 and is located approximately 40 kilometers south of Merida and 93 kilometers west of Chichen Itza near Telchaquillo. At the beginning of the 13th century defeated Mayapán the competing neighboring Chichen Itza.
During the late Postklassikums the earlier existing location to the then largest city of Yucatan was expanded. In an area of just over 4 km ² lived in more than 4,000 buildings probably around the 12,000 inhabitants. The houses are rectangular and are on low platforms. It is characterized by an open vestibule with running along the back wall stone benches, which are interrupted by the inputs to the back room. The houses were surrounded by a small garden house, which had accrued to the neighbors with low walls made of unworked stones. The urban area was densely built without particular spatial organization and surrounded by a 9 km long city wall with numerous narrow Tordurchgängen, suggesting the troubled times. Whether this wall was used for defense, is doubtful, because they would have been in spite of its large population, difficult to man. Outside the wall only a few buildings were available.
Located just west of the center of the city is the administrative and religious center, which differs from the closely packed structure of residential areas by large open spaces and the shape and purpose of the buildings. At the center of the Kukulkan pyramid, which consists of new steps or stacked platforms with rounded edges stands. From all four sides with wide stairs leading stair stringers to the small temple building on the top. The pyramid is obvious, a reduced version of the Pyramid of Kukulkan in Chichen Itza, though. Less expensive version Thus, the outer sides were even the plan of the temple building, which consists of a large interior space with a narrow vestibule, the entrance is supported by serpent columns, and on the other three sides to the interior of the current transition -like room with three entrances after the other directions corresponds very closely the Chichen Itza. Unlike there, the sides of the pyramid, however, were not covered with well-tilled trim stones, but with painted plastic elaborate stucco. The height of the pyramid is 15 m, the base area 32 by 35 m.
Around the Kukulkan Pyramid and the surrounding square are numerous representative buildings. In most cases, it is colonnades that are typical for Mayapan buildings that are located on a platform that is to climb over about 5 steps. The porticoes themselves are usually made of two rows of brick columns and a back wall, which is also about advances to the half of the pages. In the middle of the back wall there is a small shrine, the remaining length of the back wall and the side walls is occupied by a brick bench. Very similar structures are found in the porticoes of Chichen Itza and localities in the east coast such as El Rey. Structurally, they are similar to the C-shaped buildings, are like to find after the end of the main settlement in Uxmal and other places of Puuc zone, but also to the region of the Petén.
Round temple similar to the Caracol in Chichen Itza are especially common in Mayapan. They are situated on a higher platform ( about 10 steps) and have a circular outer wall. Usually they have a single input and the interior is divided by a transverse wall with passage. In one case ( building H 18 ) has four inputs are available according to the four cardinal directions, which also correspond to the four steps of the platform. The approximately circular building has a diameter of about 8 m. In its interior there is a round wall of the propped the other side of the Mayan arch. A transition to an observation chamber as in Chichen Itza is not detectable.
Sculpture and painting
The preserved remains of stone sculpture, stucco sculpture and painting show clear influences of large parts of Mesoamerica detected late - Postclassic style which is often referred to as Codex - style or Mixteca - Puebla style. At einzelnene buildings but also Chac masks in the Puuc style are available. Mayapan is one of the few places in the Mayan culture, where a larger number of metal objects has been found.