35.88611111111114.402777777778Koordinaten: 35 ° 53 ' N, 14 ° 24' O
Mdina is one of the former capitals of Malta with 253 inhabitants (as at 31 December 2010).
Mdina is located in the western center of the island of Malta on a 185 meter high foothills of the Dingli plateau, towering its northern, eastern and north-western slopes steeply from the landscape. Immediately southwest of the larger twin city of Rabat connects.
The origins of the settlement Mdina's go back to the Bronze Age, even then, the hill was used because of the strategic location as a residential space. The Phoenicians built it out as a fortress and called the place Malet = haven. In Roman times, the name changed in Melita. The Romans surrounded the city together with the neighboring Rabat with a strong fortress wall. In this period, the city was inhabited by nearly 1,000 people. After 870, the Arabs had conquered the Maltese Islands, they gave the city its present name = Mdina walls surrounding the city. To be able to defend better, they reduced the fixing belt on the city of Mdina. One -time gain but learned the city walls during the time of the Norman rule in the 12th century. Such located and secured favorable Mdina held In 1422 an attack of 18,000 Turks stood and subsequently received the honorary title of " Città Notabile ".
Also the Knights of St. John, 1530 settled on Malta, the strategic location of the city said to first, so that they Mdina chosen for their first residence. However, as soon became apparent that Malta was to dominate favorable from the coast, Mdina was forced to cede the capital status of Birgu. Now, the city was only for the Maltese nobility of importance of the here still the seat of his self-government, the Università held. After Valletta had been appointed in 1571 to the final capital of Malta, the island's population targeted in the new metropolis and in Mdina began a significant population decline. Nevertheless, Lorenzo Gafa received, famous church builder in Malta, 1697 order, which was destroyed in the earthquake of 1693 Cathedral St. Paul rebuild. It was consecrated in 1702 and is now regarded as a masterpiece of the builder.
Today Mdina is a tourist center, where time seems to be stopped time. The medieval townscape is characterized by narrow streets and erected from the malta typical sand-colored limestone palaces and churches. It is called the silent city of Mdina today, because there is only one hotel and a few restaurants, so most visitors even before the evening to leave the city, which then presents itself almost deserted.
- One enters the city in general through the Main Gate, the Grand Master of the Order of Malta Antonio Manoel de Vilhena - was built ( 1663 1736).
- On the eastern edge rises the Cathedral of St. Paul, behind the facade of simple doppeltürmiger a gorgeous Enriched with three naves and shows. While the floor is covered with colored marble grave slabs adorn Sicilian paintings with scenes from the lives of the Apostles Peter and Paul, the vaulted ceiling.
- South of the cathedral is the Cathedral Museum, whose greatest treasure is a collection of engravings and woodcuts of Albrecht Dürer.
- In the north of the city is the Palazzo Falcon is commonly referred to as Norman House because of its originating from the Norman period facade jewelry.