As Megaron (Greek Μέγαρον ) refers to either one of the three main parts of the ancient Greek house, whose function as the great hall men in later times took over the Andron, or in the eastern Mediterranean widespread building type.

Megaron with porch

Megaron with columns ( temple in antis )

Greek residence

Breakfast time

Forms of Megaron developed already in the middle Neolithic both in Southeastern Europe ( Dimini, Sesklo ) as well as in Asia Minor ( Troy) and the Levant ( Jericho, Tell Chuera ).

Minoan culture

In the Minoan culture, the Megaron is a large two-story building that mimics the architecture of the palaces and served as the seat of a local prince. The big palaces, are themselves major halls are named as Megaron. The shape is then referred to as " Minoan Megaron " and often served as a throne room or meeting hall. In the Palace of Knossos, such a " Minoan Megaron " has received as a throne room, where the walls are dissolved by supports and connects the area with the surrounding corridors and halls.

Mycenaean and archaic Greek culture

On the Greek mainland, a solid form of the Megaron developed during the Mycenaean period as the central building of a royal castle. Well researched are the surviving examples of the great castles in Mycenae ( Peloponnese ), Tiryns and Pylos. Such Megaron had a main room with only one access center in the longitudinal axis of the building. Centrally located in the room there was a circular fire place that was usually provided with a stone annular skirt. This central structure was surrounded by four columns. At the entrance there was a vestibule, which could also have doors to the sides and so in touch with the rest of the palace allowed. The main hall opposite was in the forefront of the main entrance, which was made possible in Mycenae and Tiryns by a central door, in Pylos by three side doors located. Before that there was a vestibule between the early side walls of the longitudinal walls ( students). On the side of the courtyard were two columns. In Tiryns and Pylos, the porch was incorporated by other columns in other departments of the Court in these, in Mycenae has probably little to get to be able to demonstrate such a Hofumbauung can.

Mycenaean and archaic sanctuaries in the form of an elongated building, which was divided into three rooms are also referred to as the Megaron. An example has been discovered, inter alia, in Methana. The sanctuary in the form of a Megaron was the forerunner of the ancient Greek temple. Also the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem had this tripartite form ( see floor plan ).

Basic form of a Megaron sanctuary

Archaic temple in Selinunte

Schematic outline of a Megaron. 1: Ante, 2: Hall ( main room ), 3: Columns in the lobby and in the main room

The Megaron at Mycenae, view through the hall with the round fireplace, the ante room and the porch to the yard