Mentuhotep II.

Mentuhotep II was an Egyptian King (Pharaoh) of the 11th Dynasty ( Middle Kingdom ) that by 2010 BC, first ruled from about 2061 in Upper Egypt and later the unification produced with Lower Egypt. In Turin Royal Canon 51 full years of reign are covered for him.

  • 4.1 General
  • 4.2 About the name
  • 4.3 To the grave temple 4.3.1 excavation publications
  • 4.3.2 General


Mentuhotep II was the son Antef III. and a queen Yeah.

Its main consorts were temperature and Neferu. As concubines Henhenet, Kawit, Kemsit, Sadeh and Aschait apply. His successor Mentuhotep III. was his son from the connection with Tem. Whether it is at Mijt by another wife, fiancee or daughter Mentuhotep II is uncertain.


This king succeeded somewhere between his 30th and 39th year, to some the whole of Egypt. This followed are documented struggles for This, Assiut and Herakleopolis. He is considered the founder of the Middle Kingdom and was the first king who led the Königstitular complete with all five names. His Horus name he changed twice, the last schema taui then also means " Uniter of the Two Lands " ( upper and lower Egypt).

The rulers launched an aggressive foreign policy. For Nubia campaigns are attested. A rock inscription of the ruler was found even in Oweinat in the far west ( near the present border with Libya).

In his 46th year of rule, an entry for the creation of the Stele of Meru is noted.

The court

Two viziers this ruler can be attributed with certainty. Bebi is known by only one block from the mortuary temple of the king and served well by the middle of the reign. He was followed by Dagi, known by his grave and mentions in the mortuary temple.

Chety was the first Chancellor ( treasurer ) under the ruler and realigned the sed festival for the king. Meketre was treasurer of King Mentuhotep II. / III. His grave ( TT280 ) south of Deir el- Bahari was excavated 1919/20. It contained 25 wooden models in Serdab.

Steward was Henenu, who is also still occupied under the successor. Head of Siegler was Meru, known again by his grave and an inscription in Nubia, which indicates that he led a Nubienfeldzug of Mentuhotep II. As general a certain Antef is occupied, probably led a campaign of Asia. In his grave the siege of a fortress Asian is shown.


Mentuhotep renovated especially at numerous places in Upper Egypt Temple. He is the first Egyptian ruler, by which such a more comprehensive temple is famous temple construction project.

Mortuary Temple

In Deir el- Bahari is Mentuhotep II had built a mortuary temple, which was unique at that time. From the valley temple on the edge of the cultivated land was reached him via a 46 m wide and 1 km long geziegelten causeway, which was enclosed by a wall and, to a hineingeschmiegten in the mountain basin, temple led. In the forecourt, a ramp goes from about which one enters a tunnel. In, located at the end of which, the chamber was, wrapped in linen, Ka statue of Mentuhotep and found an empty wooden coffin. (So-called Bab el- Hossan )

The pillared hall of the mortuary temple was either topped by a pyramid, a mastaba, an obelisk or a primeval mound. Here the Egyptologists are not unanimous.

From the rear portico, a shaft length of 150 m moved into the underlying rock massif to the actual grave chamber of the king. In the side chambers of the Ganges about 600 model figures were discovered. The alabaster sarcophagus, the wooden coffin and some grave goods were found, as well as skull fragments of the king.

From the Column Hall led a later concealed passage into the grave of the chief consort Tem, the one in 1859 auffand. Unfortunately, the gifts and scrolls that were discovered there, now lost. On the western rear wall of the colonnade 6 statue shrines and sarcophagi of 6 queens and princesses of Mentuhotep II were found ( Henhenet, Kemsit, Kawit, Sadeh, Aschait and Mijt ).

More grave times

The concubines of the Pharaoh, Kawit, Henhenet, Kemsit, Sadeh and Aschait, died very young and was buried in Temple Terrace. All were priestesses of Hathor. Mijt was about 5 years old when she died. She was buried in Temple Terrace. Near the Temple terrace numerous Hofangehörige and Queen Neferu were buried. Neferu was sister and wife of Mentuhotep II