Primary definitions

Today is meant by the concept of messianism every religious and therefore political- social expectation of salvation, which is the coming of a Savior and Redeemer to the end of the story. Furthermore, a primarily secular embossed philosophy of history provided which is associated with religious ideas. From this, arises the transformation, the belief in a personal Messiah, the idea of ​​a historical end that has the fulfillment of political and social hopes to target.

  • After JM Hoene Wronski has messianism " guiding students of humanity to their true destination to destination". He divides these Hinführung in three historical periods. The first period covers the time from Egypt to the French Revolution, in which nature and man still stood together in harmony. The time of the French Revolution marks the end of this harmonious relationship, and thus the second epoch. This is characterized in that sense and knowledge diverge, ie any kind of ethical commitment, philosophy and religion were dissolved by the French Revolution and it is the task of messianism initiate a moral and spiritual rebirth. It is a process created in which all earthly obstacles are overcome and at the end of the realization of the logo is in man. This makes it possible to recognize that the Christian disclosure of the reason corresponds to and for this reason there is a reconnection of philosophy and religion. Thus, the present is the last period of history, at the end of messianism causes the attainment of absolute reason.
  • For Moses Hess, a mentor of Karl Marx, the messianism the basis of a philosophy of history. However, he does not use the term " messianism " but rather talks about a " messianic movement ". With Spinoza, the " Messianic age " of the present began with the French Revolution, it is " entered world-historical existence " into; with it begins the " rebirth of nations." The last epoch is formed by the messianic era, in her the achievements of modern science are applied to the social conditions and therefore religion can be redesigned.
  • F. Huet sees in Jesus the last and purest representatives of the messianic idea of Israel, announced that simultaneously with the religious and the social kingdom of God. Through a combination of spiritual and material goods, " to be brought about a revolution."
  • While Max Nordau 's concept of explanation only limited to Judaism, because for him, Zionism and Messianism have been almost two millennia identical concepts, Hermann Cohen extends beyond the concept of messianism about the Jewish religion. His historical and philosophical contemplation is in the future, in bringing about the "rule of the good" in the world. With him are not eudaemonism and utopianism, but rather " the basic principles of ethical socialism " in the foreground and it is " the creation of the future as the true political reality."
  • Walter Benjamin draws on the pulse of Cohen and even goes beyond that. He seeks the promulgation not in the infinitely distant future, but in the present, ie in the respective presence. These ideals springs the idea that every moment " carries revolutionary chance with him " his and Marx may be cited as the founder of the secularization of the messianic era.
  • Martin Buber notes that Marx took over these transformed messianism of Hegel and then went to his faith. The transformation of the concept of messianism is Hegel is that it transfers the messianism of the world of faith to the world the obvious beliefs.
  • Max Scheler sees in the so incurred Marxist idea of a classless society, a "scientifically disguised under himself and hope."
  • Leszek Kolakowski For any kind of revolution ideology is firstly a misguided " secular version of the religious messianism " and secondly, the hopes are incomplete reproductions of religious eschatologies.

Secondary definitions

In addition to Marxism, there are other types of political salvation faith, which also fall under the term " messianism ". Mention may be made, both the idea of ​​nationalism, as well as the special Russian Pan-Slavic and sense of mission, which some see resurrected in Bolshevism.

  • Jacob Talmon has described the messianism as a "harmonious final state full of individual self-realization and social integration at the same time ." It is also recognizable that the political messianism both Fichte and Marx as well as the European national movements always represents an expression of the tension between the abstract, universalist faith and the counter asked Resistance of reality.

Furthermore, the term messianism understood as religious studies class. In it the various messianic ideas are combined in order to subsequently historical- critical to compare.

  • Franz Rosenzweig called the salvation of Christianity a spiritual reversal of the individual, " a secret transformation of the soul ," whereas he said in relation to Judaism from a " messianic politics."
  • According to Gershom Scholem is the Special of Jewish messianism ' is that this is " takes place in public, on the stage of history and in the medium of the community." In Jewish messianism life "in the delay ," waiting and hoping for the coming of the Savior, both the strength and the weakness is, so the wait will be paid with a life of the provisional and preliminary.
  • For Theodor W. Adorno 's guiding principle is not formed by the wait for redemption, but rather by the anticipation, because it is the philosophy that " is responsible only in the face of despair." Adorno means by that to look at the test all things as they would appear in the " messianic light ".