Mezdra (Bulgarian: Мездра ) is located in north- western Bulgaria, city and part of Vratsa Oblast. It is located in the western Balkan Mountains, 14 km southeast of Vratsa. Through the town of Iskar river flows. Just south of the city cuts through the river coming from the south of the Balkan Mountain in a deep gorge.
Although the region was continuously inhabited since time immemorial, Mezdra remained a small village, at the first census in the Principality of Bulgaria January 1, 1881 had only 86 inhabitants, in 1888 only 76 residents in 17 households. And, although in 1887 a bridge was built over the Iskar, connecting Sofia with Vratsa. In the former district of Vratsa Mezdra was the third largest village.
It was not until the construction of the railway from Sofia in the City 1893 novel brought the turnaround. With the expansion of infrastructure came the economic boom of Mezdra. For four years, came hundreds of workers from across the country to lay tracks to build tunnels and bridges and repair the roads.
With the opening of the railway on 20 February 1897, the city became an important transport hub and the population grew gradually. For the inauguration of the railway line through the Metropolitan Konstantin were Ferdinand I of Bulgaria and his wife Marie Louise of Bourbon- Parma and the Prime Minister of Bulgaria Konstantin Stoilov by train from Sofia arrived, and she was having at that time in Bulgaria Serbian King Alexander I of Serbia. Northwest Bulgaria can be reached by train just across the railway line at Mezdra. Here, separate the railway lines Sofia - Vidin and Sofia - Varna.
1900, the place had 311 inhabitants and 1920 there were 1015 inhabitants.
Mezdra in 1950 was declared a town. Even before Mezdra but had the appearance of a small town. The city architects who had studied in Germany, gave the village a Western European style.
The fortress Kaleto is on the outskirts, on the shore of the Iskar, south of the station, 15 minutes walk from the city center. The fortress was destroyed several times throughout history and rebuilt. The foundations of the fortress were built according to the design of the Romans, but the fortress walls date from the Old Bulgarian period. The ruins of the fortress Kaleto, from the 16th century, are the best preserved ruins in the region.
Pottery, arrowheads, Lehmgewichte for weaving, flint drill bit for woodworking, an edited Stag, two clay ovens, one of which was destroyed during illegal excavations - In the surrounding of the fort, the oldest archaeological finds from the 5th to the 6th millennium BC date. A fortified settlement was here already at the end of the Chalcolithic period in the 6th millennium BC
The archaeological finds show a changing settlement by the Thracian tribe of the Triballi, penetrate the Bastarni and the invading Celtic tribe of the Scordisci. After the first century the settlement and all Moesia was conquered by the Roman Empire.
The original Roman fortress dates from the 2nd century AD However, it was not a question of a military garrison, but a police station. Crossed here the main ways the Roman province of Moesia and the main road connecting the Roman provinces of Moesia and Thrace, by the Iskardurchbruch ( Iskarski Prolom; Bulg Искърски пролом or Искърското дефиле ) verlieft by the Balkan Mountains
In the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, the fort was built next to a settlement of a Roman sanctuary. Among other things, the archaeologists a medallion of Emperor Severus Alexander found ( 222-235 ), of which there are only three copies worldwide. The awarding of such medallions was one of the highest honors. Even a gold coin ( aureus) of the same emperor was found here in 2006. It weighs six grams. Your front is adorned with a portrait of Severus Alexander and on the back of the god Mars is depicted wearing a laurel wreath. The archaeologists assume that it is of the coin is a gift to the sanctuary, which was then located on this hill. The coin was not found in circulation.
Here was also the language border through the Roman provinces on the Balkan Peninsula. West of it was spoken in Latin, Greek east of it.
The Archaeological excavations in the vicinity of the fort had been completed 20 years ago, but are included again in 2008.
( Forcible introduction of Christianity 313) an Episcopal basilica built near the village Ljuti was in the first decades after the Constantinian shift ( Episkop = bishop, see also Episcopal Church ). This basilica was the right size with 28 × 16 m for that time. The murals show the transition from the three-dimensional representation of, for the Eastern Orthodox Church, characteristic relief representation of symbols ( lamb, fish, pigeon, etc.).
The location on the main railway line Sofia - Varna promotes the economic development of Mezdra. There are in the town quarries, brick factories and breweries.
The municipality is 519 km2 Mezdra and includes the city of Mezdra, and the following 27 villages: Bodenez, Brusen, Darmanzi, Dolna Kremena, Elisejna, Gorna Beschowiza, Gorna Kremena, Ignatiza, calendar, Krapez, Crete, Lik, Ljutibrod, Ljutidol, Morawiza, Oselna, Oslen Kriwodol, Otschindol, Rebarkowo, Ruska Bela, Slidol, Staro Selo, Swerino, Tiptscheniza, Warbeschniza, Zakoniza, Tzarevetz.
Most of the surface is used for agriculture or is covered by forests. Of the 195 km ² 25 km ² and 21 km ² coniferous forests deciduous forests. It outweigh gray earth soils that are suitable for the cultivation of food crops. The average altitude of the municipality is 270 m. The terrain is semi- mountainous.
The Town Festival is held every year on May 6. Also in May, the Culture Days are celebrated " Mezdra -Mai ".
The church " Sveti Georgi Pobedonosez " ( St. George ) was built in 1930-32, mainly from donations of the heirs of the manufacturer Georgi Balbanow. The Tschitalischte " Prosweta " was founded in 1925. Since 1971 there is a gallery. In the House of railroad worker is a museum dedicated to the history of the railway.
The football club of the city is called locomotive Mezdra.
In the gorge of the nearby Iskardurchbruchs, close to the river and surrounded by the high walls of the canyon, the monastery is Tscherepischki ( Bulg Черепишки манастир ), which, during the time of the Second Bulgarnreiches, was built in the 14th century.
- Italy Mammola ( in the province of Reggio Calabria, the neighboring municipality of Agnana Calabra ), Italy
Sons of the city
- Tsvetan Genkow ( Fußspieler )