Middle school#North America

In the school system of the United States, the Middle School (English for " middle school " ) is a secondary school of the secondary education sector. They usually sometimes beyond includes grades 6-8, and the grades 5 or 9 Middle School follows the Primary School ( Elementary School ); itself follows the high school. A vertical differentiation of the school system - with different types of schools for gifted and less gifted students - there are not in the USA.

Since the decision as to which types of schools are operated, is in the hands of school districts, is so like locally, Middle Schools are not universally distributed in the United States. In many school districts, the students of the middle class levels do not go to Middle Schools, Junior High Schools but that often follow a slightly different concept of education. In others there are for the middle grades no special type of school, but the high school immediately following the expanded basic school ( "K -8 ").


By the end of the 19th century covered primary schools in the United States, grades K through 8 from, and High Schools Grades 9 to 12 in Columbus ( Ohio) Opened in 1901, the first junior high school. The first Middle School was built in 1950 in Bay City (Michigan). However, some spread obtained the only Middle Schools in the 1960s and they were even common practice until the 1970s and 1980s. In 2000, passed the U.S., approximately 16,000 Middle Schools and approximately 2,000 junior high schools.


The Middle School tries the particular intellectual, social, physical and emotional needs of 11- 14-year old be taken into account and is designed as a bridge between elementary school and high school, combines the features of both types of schools. At the heart of the concept of the team in which the individual student finds his social base and with whom he studied stands.

All students in a year group are housed in the same wing of the school building and distributed to some schools in class association similar groups in other they are studying in the course system. Gifted children who have received at the elementary school enrichment, honors students are as summarized in many Middle Schools in special groups; at other schools, the composition of the classes are completely random. The entire year is supervised by a team of teachers who in the basic subjects of English, Social Science ( Civics, History ), Natural Sciences and Mathematics specialize and coordinate so closely with colleagues that many lessons can be carried out as interdisciplinary projects. As a result, traditional school hours are often replaced by a more flexible activities. Since disabled children are schooled integrative in the U.S., part of the team, if necessary, a Special Education Teacher.

The curriculum includes in addition to the basic subjects is often a first foreign language. Regularly addition, electives are offered ( Electives, such as sports, choir, orchestra, art, computer, home economics ). Another integral part of the daily routine is studying in the school library. At almost all Middle Schools are also extracurricular activities such as Drama, Competitive Debating, mathematics or chess offered; they are organized in working groups ( so-called clubs and teams). The students go during the day time and again the classroom (teachers room system ), have as a fixed point in addition to their personal locker but also a Homeroom in which they arrive at the beginning of the school day to the Pledge of Allegiance, for example. The Homeroom is also the space of personal Ansprechlehrers ( Homeroom Teacher, Advisor).

Like all American schools is also the Middle School, a day school; the students eat lunch in the school canteen ( cafeteria). The in primary schools customary big break at noon ( Recess) is replaced at the Middle School usually by a free study time ( study hall ). Although the teaching extends well into the afternoon, and extensive homework is given daily.

Differences between Middle School and Junior High School

Since the school districts decide for itself which approach to follow their schools, the terms " Middle School " and " Junior High School " in practice, not always very meaningful; many " Middle Schools " and " junior high schools " combine elements of the concepts of both types of schools. Basically, however, there are significant differences between the two concepts. However, the emphasis on the academic promotion and contest of power, in the Middle School on the cooperation and the promotion of holistic ( intellectual, creative, social, emotional ) development - Sun is in junior high school - according to the model of the College students.