Midland Railway

The Midland Railway ( MIDR ) was a British railway company that existed from 1844 to 1922. It originated from the merger of three companies. The main line of the Midland Railway, the Midland Main Line, linking London with the East Midlands and Leeds. Before the Midland Railway in 1923 merged into the London, Midland and Scottish Railway, she was the only railway company that owned routes in all four parts of the country (England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland). The length of the route network was 3493 km in the last year of operation.


The Midland Railway was established on 10 May 1844 when the Midland Counties Railway, which merged North Midland Railway and the Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway. The new company expanded rapidly by either built new routes or other companies took over. Only a year after its foundation took over the MIDR the Leicester and Swannington Railway and the Sheffield and Rotherham Railway. Also in 1846 they bought the Bristol and Gloucester Railway and thus came the Great Western Railway ( GWR ) ago that wanted to expand their broad gauge network in the Midlands. As a compromise in 1854 were laid on this route three-rail track on which trains could both track widths ( standard gauge of 1435 mm of MIDR, broad gauge 2140 mm GWR ).

At the beginning of the MIDR did not have their own route to the capital. Therefore, the trains ran between Rugby and London Euston on the route of the London and North Western Railway ( LNWR ). The Parliament had indeed in 1847 the construction of a line from Hitchin to London King's Cross authorized ( joint project with the Great Northern Railway), but this could not be opened before 1857. As the access roads were overloaded and the MIDR was involved in disputes with partner companies, she was planning its own access route to London. The Midland Main Line was opened in 1868, together with the new central train station London St Pancras. 1870, was added a shortcut route between Leicester and Chesterfield.

The LNWR was in the 1860s the MIDR deny opening up their tracks. In order to still allow access to Scotland, built the Settle - Carlisle Line MIDR the. The opening of the scenic main route through the Yorkshire Dales and the North Pennines was 1876. Yet before construction could with the LNWR to reach an agreement and the MIDR wanted to give up the project. But Parliament insisted on the construction of the track and refused the withdrawal of the concession granted.

Even in the 20th century expanded the MIDR through acquisitions. It acquired 1903, the Belfast and Northern Counties Railway in Northern Ireland and in 1912 the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway. The MIDR had working rights on leased lines and built a number of tracks along with other companies. The largest joint venture were the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway (along with the GNR) and the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway (along with the London and South Western Railway ).

With the entry into force of the Railways Act 1921, the Midland Railway was dissolved on 1 January 1923 and integrated into the newly formed London, Midland and Scottish Railway.