Molar (tooth)

A molar or molar (dens molaris, plural dentes molar, from Latin molaris, millstone ' ) is a large molar. Molars are primarily the grinding of food, which has previously been bitten by the incisors.

In humans belong to the 6th, 7th and 8th tooth to the molars. They are big, strong teeth with pronounced bumps ( tubercles ) and dimples ( fissures ). The first upper molar, the second rare, often has an accessory cusp, the tubercle carabelli.


The first permanent tooth of the first molar ( 6 ) breaks at about the age of six years after the last baby tooth through ( ie without a milk tooth fails before). Therefore He is also called Sechsjahrmolar. The second molar ( 7) series breaks through as provisional last around the age of twelve years. The third molars usually appear only in adulthood ( approximately 18 to 25 years ) and is therefore also called wisdom teeth. At about 50 % of the people the wisdom teeth are not created or relocated and / or retiniert.

Because the first permanent molars usually break even before the loss of the deciduous incisors, they are considered by laymen often as late milk teeth. As such, they are then ignored in the dental care ( " The fall out anyway " ) and thus often take a very early damage.

The molars are popularly called " growth teeth " because of their position previously recognized no milk teeth. In contrast, the replacement teeth ( 1 Series to 5 Series ) cause in their tooth eruption failure of the primary tooth at the respective position. In rare cases, a baby tooth is not discharged by a replacement tooth. The milk tooth then stops in the dentition, he persisted. This can either be an unerupted and / or impacted teeth or agenesis of the permanent tooth. Both does not occur in molars.

In rare cases, there is also a ninth tooth that breaks through the fourth molar.

Tooth roots

The number of the roots, the root canals and of the protuberances are shown in the following table, in which deviations are possible.

The human dentition ( schematically ):

In the upper jaw have the human molars three or more roots. A very powerful on the palate side ( palatal root ) and two smaller on the cheek side ( vestibular ). Of these, is a root of the front ( mesial ), and the other the back ( distal). The two vestibular roots are correctly referred to as mesio- vestibular root and as disto- buccal root. In everyday practice, however, just use the term short of the distal, mesial and palatal root. Per root there is at least one root canal. Mesio - buccal roots sometimes have two channels.

In the lower jaw, the molars have two roots. Of this there is a mesial root (front) and a distal root (back). Per root there is at least one root canal. The mesial root has however in most cases, two channels - one channel is the vestibular ( cheek on the side) and the other of the lingual (on the side of the tongue ).

The roots of wisdom teeth can be extremely variable ( for example, stunted or barbed ) both in their number ( 1 to 5) as well as in their form, as well as the number of root canals. This may occur if dental extractions to problems and root canal treatments lead to unsolvable problems.

When using an operating microscope, the success rate is markedly increased in the discovery of additional root canals.