Monthon ( Thai: มณฑล; corresponds etymologically Sanskrit: मण्डल Mandala "circle ") was the highest administrative unit of Siam (now Thailand ) at the beginning of the 20th century. The first Monthon were on a trial basis in 1893 on the initiative of King Chulalongkorn ( Rama V ) together with the Thesaphiban system ( Thai: เทศาภิบาล, " control of the country " ) was officially set decorated with the Local Government Act 1897 in force. In addition to the provinces established ( first used for provinces in Monthon Pattani ), Amphoe and Tambon as lower administrative units. Then in 1915 was divided into 19 provinces and 72 Monthon the entire country. One reason for the relatively slow implementation of the Local Government Act was the lack of suitable officials who were able to implement the law. 1925, under King Rama VII (r. 1925-1935 ) merged some Monthon for economic reasons and 14 were left before they were completely abolished after the fall of the absolute monarchy of Siam in 1933, so since then form the provinces the chief administrative unit in Thailand.
Before mounting the Thesaphiban system the situation in Siam following was: By the end of the 19th century the country consisted of a core empire in Central Thailand, a number of semi-independent tributary kingdoms and the Müang ( forerunner of today's provinces ) in the north -, Northeast, Southern Thailand and the eastern region of central Thailand, who also had a degree of autonomy from the central government (Mandala ) system. As the country by the colonial powers of France from the east ( Indochina ) ago and the United Kingdom of North ( Burma) and South ( Malaysia) came under increasing pressure, the government had to step up their scrutiny, in particular on the more remote parts of the country under King Chulalongkorn ( Rama V ). This began around 1870 in the Kingdom of Lan Na with the posting of the High Commissioner from Bangkok. After the establishment of the Ministry of Interior in 1892 under the first Interior Minister Prince Damrong Rajanubhab was then in 1899 the Lan Na Monthon Phayap.
In the south, the two Malay Sultanate of Kedah and Pattani were also managed by a respective Monthon, but Kedah was (except for the province of Satun ) 1907 to the British colonial empire. Also could not be maintained today's Cambodia, which Monthon Burapa went to military pressure 1906 French Indochina.
While previously the provincial governors were de facto inherited items for life, which also apart from annual payments to the central government had complete freedom of the charges in their sphere of influence taxes and duties, it has been paid in the course of 1892 initiated administrative reforms of Bangkok items. Not all governors took the loss in power down without resistance, the strongest rebellion was the revolt of the " holy men " ( phu mi bun ) 1902 in Northeast Thailand ( Isan ).
In 1925 there were the following Monthon:
1932 created the new military government from the four Monthon Pattani, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Chaisi and Chanthaburi. With the Provincial Administration Act of 1933 and the remaining 10 Monthon were abolished and the provinces were the highest administrative unit in Thailand.
History of Monthon
- Phayap ( มณฑล พายัพ ): The Monthon was in 1899 Northwest Monthon ( มณฑล ฝ่าย ตะวันตก เฉียง เหนือ, Monthon fai tawan - tok chiang Nuea ) called, but was it a year later to Phayap ( educational language for "North West ", from Sanskrit vāyavya ) renamed. The administrative reform was carried out stepwise 1907-1915, which were abolished the Office of the High Commissioner. The Monthon extended over the dominions of the former kingdom of Lan Na, ie the provinces of Chiang Mai, Lamphun, Mae Hong Son, Lampang, Chiang Rai, Nan and Phrae.
- Maharat ( มณฑล มหา ราษฎร์ ): The Monthon Maharat was built in 1915 after the split into two individual Monthon Monthons. This was located on the eastern part, ie the provinces of Chiang Rai, Nan, Lampang and Phrae.
- Nakhon Sawan ( มณฑล นครสวรรค์ ): The Monthon Nakhon Sawan was built in 1895 and was therefore one of the first Monthons. It extended over the provinces of Nakhon Sawan, Chainat, Kamphaeng Phet, Manorom, Phayuhakhiri, Sankhaburi, Tak, Uthai Thani.
- Phitsanulok ( มณฑล พิษณุโลก ): The Monthon Phitsanulok was built in 1894 and was one of the first Monthon. It extended over the provinces of Phitsanulok, Phichai, Phichit, Sukhothai and Sawankhalok.
- Phetchabun ( มณฑล เพชรบูรณ์ ): The Monthon Phetchabun was separated in 1899 by Monthon Nakhon Ratchasima and consisted of the provinces of Lom Sak and Phetchabun, which were merged later. Thus, it was the only Monthon, which consisted of only one province. Between 1903 and 1907 it belonged to Monthon Phitsanulok, then rebuilt in 1915 and finally incorporated into the final Monthon Phitsanulok.
- Nakhon Ratchasima ( มณฑล นครราชสีมา ): The Monthon Nakhon Ratchasima 1893 was the first Monthon and extended over the provinces of Nakhon Ratchasima ( Khorat ), Buri Ram and Chaiyaphum. 1899 Monthon Phetchabun was cleaved.
- Isan ( มณฑล อีสาน ): The Monthon Isan was built in 1900. In June 1912, was split into two Monthons Roi -Et and Ubon.
- Roi -Et ( มณฑล ร้อยเอ็ด ): The Monthon Roi -Et was separated in 1912 by Monthon Isan and consisted of the provinces of Roi Et, Kalasin and Maha Sarakham.
- Ubon ( มณฑล อุบล ): The Monthon Ubon was split off in 1912 by Monthon Isan and consisted of the provinces of Ubon Ratchathani, Khukhan, Sisaket and Surin.
- Udon ( มณฑล อุดร ): The Monthon Udon was established in 1899 and extended over the provinces of Udon Thani, Khon Kaen, Loei, Nakhon Phanom, Nong Khai and Sakon Nakhon.
- Phuket ( มณฑล ภูเก็ต ): The Monthon Phuket was built in 1898 and replaced the former Commissioner. It consisted of the provinces of Phuket, Thalang, Ranong, Phang Nga, Takua Pa and Krabi. 1907, the province of Satun was incorporated, after the majority of the Monthon Kedah had warden delivered to the UK.
- Chumphon ( มณฑล ชุมพร ): The Monthon Chumphon was built in 1896 and consisted of the provinces of Chumphon, Chaiya, Kanchanadit and Lang Suan. Chaiya and Kanchanadit spatter came together in a province named Chaiya. 1905 pulled the Monthon management to Ban Don, the center of Chaiya. Chaiya was renamed in Surat Thani, as well as the Monthon. The Monthon Surat was incorporated in 1925 in the Nakhon Si Thammarat Monthon.
- Nakhon Si Thammarat ( มณฑล นครศรีธรรมราช ): The Monthon Nakhon Si Thammarat was built in 1896, it consisted of the provinces of Songkhla, Nakhon Si Thammarat and Phatthalung.
- Pattani ( มณฑล ปัตตานี ): The Monthon Pattani was built in 1906 and extended over the so-called " seven Malay provinces " (formed from the former Sultanate of Patani ) Pattani ( Tani ), Yala, Sai Buri, Yaring, Nong Chik, Raman and Ra - Ngae.
- Kedah ( มณฑล เก ดะ ห์ ); later Saiburi ( มณฑล ไทรบุรี ): The Monthon Kedah was built in 1897 and consisted of the provinces of Kedah, Perlis and Satun. 1907 had to cede to Great Britain, where Satun remained with Siam and was incorporated into the Monthon Phuket Siam Kedah.
- Krung Thep (Bangkok; มณฑล กรุงเทพ ): The capital was traditionally under the supervision of the Ministry of Municipal Affairs, but a Monthon - like device was created in 1897, the Monthon Krung Thep. The Monthon consisted of the provinces of Phra Nakhon, Thonburi, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Phra Pradaeng ( Nakhon Khueankhan ), Samut Prakan, Thanyaburi and Min Buri. Pathum Thani Thanyaburi and later came to the Monthon Ayutthaya. 1915 named to Krung Thep Maha Nakhon Phra (Bangkok Metropolis ). 1922, the Department of Municipal Affairs was disbanded and came to the Interior Ministry, as all Monthons were managed from there.
- Ayutthaya ( มณฑล อยุธยา: The Monthon of Ayutthaya was founded in 1893 as Krung Kao Monthon ( มณฑล กรุง เก่า ) built and consisted of the provinces of Ayutthaya (then Krung Kao), Ang Thong, Lopburi, Phrom Buri and Saraburi.
- Ratchaburi ( มณฑล ราชบุรี ): The Monthon Ratchaburi was built in 1895 and extended over the provinces of Ratchaburi, Kanchanaburi, Samut Songkhram, Phetchaburi and Prachuap Khiri Khan.
- Nakhon Chai Si ( มณฑล นครชัยศรี ): The Monthon Nakhon Chai Si was built in 1895 and consisted of the provinces of Nakhon Chai Si, Samut Sakhon and Suphan Buri.
- Prachinburi ( มณฑล ปราจีนบุรี ): The Monthon Prachinburi established in 1893 and extended over the provinces of Prachin Buri, Chachoengsao, Nakhon Nayok and Phanom Sarakham.
- Burapha ( มณฑล บูรพา ): The Monthon Burapha was created in 1903 and consisted of the provinces of his time Sisophon, Battambang, Phanomsok and Siamriap (Siem Reap), all located in what is now Cambodia. 1906 had to be submitted to the field of French Indochina.
- Chanthaburi ( มณฑล จันทบุรี ): The Monthon Chanthaburi was built in 1906 and consisted of the provinces of Chanthaburi, Rayong and Trat. The Monthon after the dissolution of Monthon Burapa created after the French had withdrawn from Chanthaburi.