Similarly, a ship must also be anchored airships, if you want to prevent them from abortion. Airships are frequently attached to an anchor post.
For this purpose the most airships have a reinforced nose with a mooring point.
The mast is always used when the airship is not housed in an airship hangar. In modern ships the mast relatively small air is often mounted on a truck. So it is transportable and can be driven to the places, for example, from which operates the airship. With a movable mast the docked airship can also be moved on the ground without great personal effort.
The " park" the airship to the mast, the ship is free to rotate around the mast in the wind. In this way, large wind loads are avoided on the ship and the mast.
In the great historical Starr airships had to move the ship on the ground, as the lead single and unhangaring to over two hundred helpers the ship with muscle strength. Therefore, inter alia, rail-mounted masts for the bug and trolleys for the guidance of the stern ( rear car) were tested on the rigid airships of the 1930s. The lower tail fin or the tail engine nacelle were mounted on the rear car. It could roll around the mast when "parking" the armature pole on a circular rail track. He followed the orientation of the ship into the wind, holding the tail at the same time on the ground. Nevertheless, the ships were at the landing first "captured" by the ground crew and led to the mast.
1924 equipped the U.S. Navy from the oil tanker USS Patoka (AO- 9) with a mooring mast for dirigibles. At this mast placed the American airships such as during maneuvers with the fleet. Since both ships sailed at a certain speed, it was easier for the airship approached the mooring mast to maneuver, as is the case with a fixed mast on land.
Two of the 1926 anchor masts used by the Norge and 1928 from Italia, both keel airships by Umberto Nobile, for polar expeditions can be seen in Ny -Ålesund on Svalbard and in Vadsø (Norway ) today.
The only remaining completely intact and mooring mast of the transatlantic traffic in 1930, the Zeppelin Tower in Recife, the capital of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. On 21 May 1930, the LZ was 127 "Graf Zeppelin" on their first journey to Brazil at anchor. This was the beginning of a successful route between Germany (Frankfurt am Main ) and Brazil ( Recife - Rio de Janeiro). During this time, LZ 129 "Hindenburg" four times and the LZ was 1930-1938 127 "Graf Zeppelin" five times anchor. The mooring mast is about 10 minutes from the Mangueira Metrô station and is located in a guarded military area and can be visited on request. It has been restored several times.
The concept of the high mast, which was widespread in England and the United States, pursued the idea, not to allow the airship to land, but only to moor and make the people and material transfer via a hatch in the bow. However, the disadvantage was, among other things, that the ship had to remain constantly manned to compensate for buoyancy changes, for example by temperature changes.
In the two British transport airships R100 and R101 in entering the ship via a bridge under the Bugverankerung was intended from the outset. Normally this area was only accessible to the men. Inside then a walkway leading to the passenger compartments ( see picture).
" Headstand " at the mooring mast
The USS Los Angeles, an airship of about 200 m in length, fully introduced on 25 August 1927 in the history of technology truly unique art pieces. She lay on the so-called high mast, a mast, where the airship was very high moored floating freely above the ground at Lakehurst. The stern was lifted by a gust of wind and fell into a cooler layer of air. The increased buoyancy of the hot carrier gas resulted despite immediate shifting weight of the team on board to a further rise in the stern, until the ship was almost vertical. This incident led to the departure of the U.S. Navy from the concept of high mast in favor of lower structures.
Dissemination of anchor masts
In many cities air ship masts were erected to allow airships to stay in the 1920s and 1930s. These masts were also cited as an advantage of airships over the aircraft because, in addition to a free field, practically were the only infrastructure that needed an airship landing.
There were concepts to allow airships to create skyscrapers. To the top of the Empire State Building opened in 1931 was originally intended to serve as a mooring mast. The mast was so stiffened that he could withstand 50 tons of train from the airship anchor. Some of the winds were already installed and the 86th Floor was prepared as a departure lounge with a ticket counter and customs control. The idea corresponded to the former enthusiasm for the giants of the skies. In the design, however, was not taken into account that airship are very slow to mänovrieren and through the neighborhood always wind turbulence occur which could severely disrupt an airship. The former airships used also as ballast water, which was given frequently during the landing maneuver for buoyancy compensation or trimming. This water, sometimes several hundred liters at once could have had a then pour in the urban canyons of New York. It remained, therefore, only in some overtures American naval airships in these mooring mast. An actual landing maneuver never took place. The risk of an accident on the crowded streets would have been too high.
The American rigid airships of the U.S. Navy, were moved in the 1950s with scrollable anchor pylons, before which a tractor was clamped on the airfield and in the hangars.
Because airships are very large, relatively slow, vulnerable to wind and therefore not precisely control on the ground, they are used during the landing at the mooring mast. Purpose there is in most airships Bugkegel on a rope that hangs down freely while driving or is rolled up. In the great historical Starr airships the bug was accessible from inside, could deploy so that a crew member using the (or the ) rope (s).
The anchor line is in the middle of Bugkegels that fits into the corresponding funnel at the mooring mast mounted. It is dragged over a deflection at the tip of the armature pole. Thus, the airship can be forced out the last meters to Create. The Bugkegel the airship is then locked at the top of the mooring mast in the rotatable hopper.
Modern anchor poles are adjustable in height. The mooring mast of the Zeppelin NT can be extended up to a length of 13 m. For example, the lower the bow to be compensated in case of sudden lifting of the stern. During the application of the pilot pushes the ship on the ground and can be pulled up by the winch on the mast. In this case, the pull rope is kept taut to avoid sudden loads. Other blimps have yet to be maneuvered with a ground crew of about 20 people on the ground by hand to the mast today.
When pure passenger change the mast normally does not apply, however, the ship is placed, for example for refueling to the mast. For longer stays on the mast, the mast vehicle may be exhausted, so additionally secured to the floor. This is necessary to ensure a high level of stability of the mast even in bad weather or windigerem.