Moscow Governorate

The government Moscow (Russian Московская губерния ) was an administrative unit of the Russian Empire that existed from 1708 to 1929. It comprised the area of the capital Moscow, which was the administrative seat of the government at the same time. Neighbouring provinces were the Tver province in the north and northwest, the Vladimir province in the northeast and east, Ryazan province in the southeast, the province of Tula and Kaluga to the south, and the province of Smolensk in the west.

It had an area of ​​33,304 km ² in the 19th century. Capital was Moscow.


The Moscow province was created by a decree of Tsar Peter I of 18 December 1708. The establishment of the governorate was accompanied this with a number of other measures in the context of the Petrine reforms. On May 29, 1719, the government ( Провинции ) was first divided into nine provinces; the previously existing administrative unit of the Doli ( доли ) was abolished. These were:

  • Vladimir Province ( Владимирская провинция )
  • Kaluga Province ( Калужская провинция )
  • Kostroma Province ( Костромская провинция )
  • Moscow province ( Московская провинция )
  • Province Pereslawl- Salesski ( Переслав - Залесская провинция )
  • Province Perejaslav - Rjasanski ( Переслав - Залесская провинция )
  • Suzdal province ( Суздальская провинция )
  • Tula Province ( Тульская провинция )
  • Province Yuriev -Polsky ( Тульская провинция )

In 1727 there were the provinces of Yaroslavl and Uglich from the government of St. Petersburg added.

1775-1778 the province of Kaluga, Tula, Tver, Vladimir, Ryazan and Kostroma were formed in succession, so that the government has been continuously reduced. His later form it received in 1781, there were from there only the division into Ujesdy. So it remained stable up to the Soviet administrative reform in 1929.

In 1900 the province was divided into 13 Ujesdy:


According to the census of 1897, the province had 2,430,581 inhabitants. Of these, 2,371,102 Russians, 19,116 German and 10,960 Poles. Otherwise, many other nationalities of the empire were represented in smaller groups.

The crop did not cover the needs of the population. The grain harvest was delivered in 1902: 175 955 tonnes of rye, 125 689 tonnes of oats, 7117 tons of barley and 402 718 tonnes of potatoes. Wheat was almost not built, however, some flax and hemp and hops in places ( in Guslizy ). Better developed was the cultivation of vegetables, such as by sting, currants and raspberries, as well as in some areas of onion and the Kohlbau. The cattle stand, also the inner need not be opaque, amounted in 1902: 214,000 horses, 274,000 head of cattle, 270,000 sheep and 42,000 pigs. Horse breeding was famous, but was at the beginning of the 20th century in decline. In the industrial point of Moscow took the first place among all the provinces of the monarchy. According to the surveys of 1900, there were 2386 farms with a production value of approximately 350 million rubles and 280 747 workers. Significant factory places besides Moscow were Bogorodsk, Zuyevo, Orechowo, Kolomna and Serpukhov. In the first place, the cotton industry was with 344 factories, employing 108 498 workers and produced goods for 104 million rubles. Of greater importance were the next to textile manufacturing, the silk spinning and weaving, dyeing and printing, and especially the chemical industry, in the Moscow also ranked first in Russia, as well as the machinery industry. Very developed was also the home industry, particularly in toys, wood carvings, and Posamentierarbeiten Papiermachéwaren that beschäfte approximately 165,000 people permanently, as well as the itinerant trade.