The city police is a municipal institution which, pronounced differently depending on the country perceives police duties. They usually puts municipal law, but occasionally higher-level laws to. In many countries the responsibility for policing duties also lies with the authorities in the cities and communities that are often have their own uniformed police force. These occur particularly become particularly apparent when it (which is the rule ) are responsible for regulatory and traffic policing issues in town or local area.
In most of these countries there are nationally applicable laws and regulations that govern the scope of the police powers of the local authorities and ensure a certain uniformity in the police organization. Especially in externals (such as the uniforms ), the police forces of individual municipalities can in one and the same country but very different. Classic examples are the Italian Polizia Municipale, the Spanish Local Police or the Swiss community police. But in Germany there are more recently Stadt-/Kommunalpolizeien that are subordinated to the local government of a municipality. Historically there have been nationwide still in the recent past own police forces of the municipal offices.
- 2.1 Police reforms
- 4.1 France
- 4.2 Namibia
- 4.3 Italy
- 4.4 Poland
- 4.5 Spain
- 4.6 Czech Republic
- 4.7 Slovakia
- 4.8 United States of America
→ Police and Police Authority term
In Germany all city police departments, some of which were developed only after 1945 because of the requirements of the Western occupying powers were nationalized in the 1960s and 1970s. In the Soviet occupation zone or East Germany, there was no municipal police forces. In Hesse and North Rhine -Westphalia has developed in recent years a discussion to introduce the name of city police again. This happened against the background to help the regulatory agencies to more authoritative and introducing a suitable common name for the sales force of the authorities. In addition, the municipal planning authorities took more and more police duties.
Until the 1970s, there were some large cities in Baden- Württemberg, for example, in Karlsruhe, Mannheim and Stuttgart, next to the National Police one city police. The city police Stuttgart was nationalized last Baden-Württemberg municipal police.
In Baden- Württemberg the members of the municipal prison service, however, have the status of a police officer, the municipality Correctional Service is not a city police in the strict sense. Its functions are limited to tasks which are transferred directly to the local police authority. Reason, some regulatory agencies use the designation police authority.
The services of the Bavarian town police forces were transferred to the Bavarian police. Finally, the City Police of the City of Munich was transferred to the police headquarters in Munich on October 1, 1975.
In Bremerhaven, there is still a local police authority as part of the National Police of Bremen. It belongs to the Bremen Police Department, however, is subject in part to the local magistrate. In the public and to the state and federal Interior Ministry, this is represented by the Bremen police.
The local police authority has its own corporate office and is further broken down into protection, criminal and administrative police. This latter corresponds to the clerk's office of the communities of the area countries and is therefore part of the City Council and therefore has competence in the sense of a city police. In Bremerhaven, there are four police stations. In addition, the local police Bremerhaven has its own traffic police with their own special vehicles and a crime museum.
→ Main article: Order Police (Hessen)
After a change of the Hessian emergency law the municipal staff who are loaned as an auxiliary police officer was to "order police officer " allowed to call. As name of the authority was therefore "order police " was introduced for the clerk's office; many municipalities amended their vehicle markings and sleeve insignia of the uniforms.
However, particularly in Frankfurt am Main and Darmstadt there were protests against the renaming, since the term " order police " had been used in Nazi Germany for organizing the police force. The markings were then changed in Darmstadt in municipal police ( local police Darmstadt) and Frankfurt am Main ( Frankfurt city police ) and later also in Offenbach and in the state capital Wiesbaden city police.
The cities of Giessen, Fulda, Kassel and all other communities in Hesse, however, continue to use the term " order police ". Many municipalities have since chosen other names, such as " planning authority " or " General Rules of authority ".
North Rhine -Westphalia
In North Rhine -Westphalia was also thinking about the term " city police ", as many municipalities already uniformed enforcement duties perceive from their area. Often this field called " Local security service ". The relevant statutory provision is not changed. Therefore, the old name is still used.
The duties of the uniformed police forces are perceived in the Switzerland of the canton and the municipality or city police. It is subject to rule a municipal security or police department.
The largest city police Switzerland is Zurich City Police. More city police with enhanced police powers are Lausanne, Baden, St. Gallen and Lugano and the city police Winterthur. The city police of Lausanne, Winterthur and Zurich use our own detective or investigative services.
Canton of Aargau: At the beginning of the new millennium, the Aargau government established regional police forces, in the center of each former city or are communal police: Aarau, Baden, Brugg, Bremgarten, Frick, Klingnau, Lenzburg, Muri, Rheinfelden, Reinach, Seengen, Untersiggenthal, Wettingen Wohlen and Zofingen. In addition the police composite Surat and the newly established Regional Police Rohrdorferberg.
Canton of Bern: With a referendum on 11 March 2007, the Bernese people to integrate into city police Bern cantonal police force on 1 January 2008 approved. All municipal corps should be united until the year 2011 in the canton of Bern in Bern Police Unit Police ( the Canton of Bern Police Department ).
Canton of Grisons: In large-scale, highly compartmentalized Canton municipal autonomy is of high importance and so the within cantonal police jurisdiction. Grisons city police: Chur ( Chur ), St. Moritz and Arosa.
Canton of Solothurn: Since 2005, the demand employed by a police unit the government. This idea was abandoned in 2009, the cities did not want to cede their police powers. As of January 2010, the cantonal Solothurn police leadership is indeed streamlined the municipal police corps Solothurn, Grenchen and Olten persist.
Canton Ticino ( Ticino): Lugano, Locarno, Bellinzona and several municipalities have their own corps.
Canton of Neuchâtel (Neuchâtel): The city police Neuchâtel to be integrated into the 2014 cantonal police forces, such as is already happening to the city corps of Le Locle and La Chaux -de-Fonds.
Canton of Waadt (Vaud): The Vaud vote for the creation of a police unit from September 27, 2009 failed: The within cantonal police federalism is indeed reorganized, the municipal police powers, however, remain largely intact. The most important corps leads the Lausanne. More Vaud corps are the city police Yverdon, Montreux, Morges.
Canton Wallis (Valais): In dissected mountain canton, there are numerous communal police. Urban Corps are Sion (Sion ), Martigny ( Martigny ), Siders ( Sierre) and Brig
Canton of Zurich: 2001 rejected the voters the creation of a single police. Since then, in addition to the cantonal police essentially the Zurich City Police and the city police Winterthur act in accordance with the Police Organization Act of 2006. Moreover, about forty other city and municipal police forces, including about that of model on their local jurisdictions work.
The exact number of constituted Swiss city and municipal police forces can not be called to different are the rules and organizations. But the fact is that the Swiss Association Municipal Police around in the hundreds.
→ Main article: Municipality wax body
In Austria municipalities or cities can create their own congregation wax body. In this SPG wax body therefore can not be called city police, the correct term is wax body community or community security guard. Currently, there are municipal constabulary body in about 50 communities. Municipal constabulary bodies have in addition to the Federal Police, the full security police powers within their field of application - the municipality. They are not to be confused with the existing community-based police stations of the Federal Police.
The staff are community workers and recruited former usually consists of former federal police or security guard officers, now made up of former employees of the Federal Police.
In cities where the respective local police department is both safety authority of first instance, not a wax body may be used by other local authorities, such as the Municipality, be erected. This is true for most Statutarstädte, including all provincial capitals up to Bregenz, as well as the capital, Vienna. Therefore, the Mobile Monitoring Group ( MUEG ) in Innsbruck, the clerk's office Klagenfurt, the order station Graz, the order station in Wels and the order of service in Linz (stewarding the city of Linz GmbH) no municipality wax body, but special devices whose exact form and powers from city differ too greatly city.
As part of the Austria - Convention, there were also considerations to abolish the municipal constabulary body, on the grounds that actually create a single, national body wax to create the monopoly of power, and thus the internal security completely on the Federation hand. These efforts were but discarded because of protests by the country and the city or of the Municipalities.
In France, the municipal or city police Police Municipale and reports to the mayor.
In Namibia, Windhoek City Police was founded in 2004 in the capital Windhoek founded. It carries out police duties for obtaining the general safety and road safety.
In Italy, the local police establishment is divided or Polizia Locale in Polizia Provinciale and Polizia Municipale. The municipal or city police called Polizia Municipale and reports to the mayor or city council. For the legal regime, the Italian regions or autonomous provinces (for example, South Tyrol ) are responsible in this area. The old, no longer used designation is vigili Urbani.
In Poland, the city police called straż miejska and the municipal police straż Gminna, and is nationally can be reached at the phone number 986. It is subject to the relevant local council.
In Spain have numerous cities and towns have local police forces, often called Local Police or Policía Municipal. Worth mentioning is the Guardia Urbana in Barcelona with its reminiscent of British police uniforms appearance.
In the Balearic Islands, Majorca, there are a variety of Policia -local services. On the road they fall because the vehicles of these police forces have been painted in the colors of the Mallorcan national flag. Lower half yellow, then a purple -colored stripe and from the window to the top decorated in red. Each district in Mallorca is to identify the police on the vehicle. Under the large lettering Policia Local is the corresponding district in small font. Are known Ajunament de (Ad) Campanet, ad Llucmajor, Ad Sta. Eugenia, ad Inca, Escora Ad, Ad Ariany, ad Capdepera, ad Sant Joan, ad Bunyola, Ad Sta. Margarita, ad Valldemossa, ad Santanyi, ad Alcudia, Soller Ad.
The Guardia Civil can be discerned in their ( held in military green) rather simple vehicles, and the city and traffic police in their blue cars addition still some units that are on scooters (mainly Palma) and motorcycles on the road to come.
In the Czech Republic the city police called Městská policie ( colloquially měšťáci ) and the municipal police policie in small towns the Municipal. It is subject to the relevant local council. The powers of the municipal police, are compared with those of the State Police, limited. The main tasks of the community police are the enforcement of local laws ( particularly parking restrictions and speed limits ) as well as sleep and public order in the respective municipality or city. The city police is nationally under the telephone number to reach 156 ( State Police, 158).
In Slovakia, the city police Mestská polícia and the municipal police called in small communities obecná polícia. The legal principles and tasks of the Slovak city police are similar to those of the Czech city police. Nationally, the City Police ( State Police 158) can be reached at telephone number 159.
United States of America
In the United States, the general police duties in almost all cities are taken over by city police. Only in rural areas, the County or the State is responsible for these tasks. Although there are also numerous police forces of the federal government, but they are each responsible for very specific tasks and do not usually general police work. The largest city police and the largest police department in the country is the New York Police Department.