Municipality (Portuguese município, Catalan Municipi from Latin municipium ) called in numerous Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries, in Italy and Romania a political and state administration unit to which usually include several towns.
Controls and elected representatives of the Municipalities and their skills vary considerably from country to country. In some Spanish speaking countries, municipalities are referred to with other terms, such as in Asturias Concejo or Conceyus, in Galicia Concello, in the Argentine province of Buenos Aires Partido, and in Chile Comuna.
Defined in the respective countries
In Spain, a municipality corresponds administratively in about a community in the German-speaking countries and is the LAU level 2 equate.
In Portugal, a Municipio the LAU level 1 is assigned (associations ), but is largely a German district ( in Germany NUTS 3 assigned ).
In Brazil, corresponds to a Municipio the smallest political and administrative unit. However, it only has two powers: an executive with the mayor and a representative body with a city council. The municipal authorities have no judicial power. A judiciary exists only at the state level and is mostly on local administrative districts ( comarca ) divided. Currently, Brazil has approximately 5,600 Municipalities.
In Bolivia, a municipality is a direct sub-unit of a province and is roughly comparable to a county or township, the name of Municipalities is almost always identical to the central town of Municipalities. A municipality is further subdivided into cantons ( cantones ) and at the lowest level in Localidades.
In El Salvador, a municipality is a direct sub- unit of a department. A municipality is further divided into Cantones.
In Cuba, a municipality is the direct subunit of a province and is about a district in Germany or a U.S. County comparable.
In Mexico, a municipality is the next higher administrative level of administration according to the state, roughly comparable to a county or municipality in Germany.
In Venezuela, a municipality is a local government district as a subdivision of the states ( estados federales ). It is further subdivided into parroquias (municipalities).
In Romania Municipiu is the name of a city that meets a set of criteria.
In Moldova, a Municipiu is a city that is not belong to Rajon and reports directly to the country. In Moldova, there are 5 municipalities.
In Argentina, the definition of Municipalities is uneven and differs from province to province, but it is in all cases to the smallest autonomous administrative unit with its own executive and legislative organs. There are two fundamentally different models: the municipio con ejido no colin dante, in which the municipios just the settlements themselves and partly cover their immediate surroundings and there are large municipio - free areas (without competent for the municipality ) and the municipio con ejido colin dante, in which the entire province area is divided according to the type of districts in municipios. In the province of Buenos Aires, the Municipalities are also the only administrative unit under the provinces, these are known Partido. In most other provinces of the Municipalities is still a department of the parent.
Since the constitutional reform of 1994, a municipality that has more than one different from province to province specified minimum level of residents, its own Carta Orgánica (eg: municipal code ) decide. As a special feature in addition in some provinces the Comuna, Comisión de Fomento or Vecinal junta, which are smaller units than the municipios and are not completely autonomous, but even any other municipality are subordinate.