• N-butanol
  • Propylcarbinol
  • Propylmethanol
  • Butyl alcohol
  • Butylhydroxid

Colorless liquid with an odor ethanolartigem


0.81 g · cm -3 ( 20 ° C)

-89 ° C

118 ° C

6.7 hPa ( 20 ° C)

Miscible with organic solvents, moderately soluble in water ( 7.9 g in 100 g of water at 20 ° C)

1.3988 (20 ° C)


310 mg · m -3 and 100 mL · m-3

Template: Infobox chemical / molecular formula search available

1 -butanol ( n-butanol or also IUPAC butane-1 -ol) is a chemical compound from the group of alkanols. The primary alcohol derived from the aliphatic hydrocarbon n -butane.

Production and representation

1-butanol can be prepared in several ways. Industrially important is the hydroformylation of propene followed by hydrogenation of the resulting reaction product ( butanal ):

Propene reacts with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to form butanal and 2- methyl propanal.

The resulting butanal reacts further with hydrogen to 1-butanol.

Another possibility is the fermentation of sugar and starch using Clostridium acetobutylicum from. Such biologically produced 1-butanol also known as bio-butanol.


Physical Properties

1-Butanol is a colorless liquid with a characteristic odor. You can mix any 1 -butanol with all common solvents, such as ether, glycol, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. In water, 1- butanol is only limited solvable. Water dissolves in 1- butanol slightly better (about 20 % by weight).

Chemical Properties

Possible reactions of 1 -butanol, the esterification to form an ester, the dehydrogenation to give an aldehyde, or condensation to form an ether:

Esterifying to form an ester:

1-butanol and propionic acid to react with acid catalysis (e.g. sulfuric acid ) and water to Propansäurebutylester.

Dehydration to form an aldehyde:

1- butanol reacts with elimination of hydrogen to butanal.

Condensation to form an ether:

1-butanol reacted under acid catalysis ( for example with hydrochloric acid ) to give di- n-butyl ether and water.


Using 1-butanol as a solvent in the production of coatings. It prevents blushing during drying of the coatings in a humid environment. Furthermore, using 1-butanol as a starting material in the manufacture of ethers and esters, in turn, serve as a solvent or as a plasticizer. As a solvent for dyes, additives in polishes and cleaners, component in fuels, mobile phase for thin-layer and paper chromatography, extraction agent in the production of drugs or as a starting material for the production of flotation chemicals, 1- butanol also be used. In addition, 1- butanol is viewed together with the other butanols as biofuel the third generation.


1-Butanol is considered flammable liquid. Above the flash point is flammable vapor-air mixtures may be formed. The compound has a flash point of 35 ° C. The explosion range is between 1.7 vol% (52 g/m3) as the lower explosive limit ( LEL) and 11.3 % by volume (350 g/m3 ) and upper explosive limit (UEL ). The maximum explosion pressure is 8.4 bar. The ignition temperature is 325 ° C. The fabric falls within the temperature class T2.

1- butanol can be harmful by inhalation and if swallowed: Kidney and liver damage, dizziness, headache, drowsiness to unconsciousness and brain dysfunction may occur. Furthermore, it can irritate the respiratory tract, digestive tract, eyes and skin. One should not leave out of the reach of children 1- butanol therefore.