N. John Habraken
N. ( Nicolaas ) John Habraken ( born October 29, 1928 in Bandung, Indonesia) is a Dutch architect, teacher, theorist and author. His topic is the mass housing, the integration of the residents in the design process. Habraken is commonly seen as the initiator of the theory of " Gebraucherpartizipation in housing ." It is an aspect of the architectural movement structuralism. For his work Habraken received various national and international architectural awards.
Origin of Gebraucherpartizipation
1961st The book " De Dragers en immense " ( The support and the people ) appears in Amsterdam. It will later be translated into different languages .
In 1965. Habraken is director of the research group SAR ( Foundation Architects Research), developed the proposals for the realization of Gebraucherpartizipation in residential construction.
1967th In Eindhoven, a second Dutch architectural school created at the university level. Habraken awarded the contract to set up the new faculty and to take the first chair.
In 1975. Habraken head of the architecture department at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, USA). It has this function until 1981, after which he worked as a professor of architecture until 1989.
Word world and imagery
It is striking that Habraken " The institutions and the people " does not use any images in the first publication. His theory is widely developed within the "Word World ", where he represents the views of the residents. The implementation of the theory into practice is left to loud Habraken " the architect ". The most interesting new " image world " arises out of Habraken circle. Inspired by the principle of " structure and filling " provide the forum Architects ( later called structuralists ) Jacob Bakema and Herman Hertzberger the first role models. Bakema shows in the journal Forum 2/1962 the participatory project " Fort l' Empereur " by Le Corbusier, in addition to the built-up to a city Diocletian 's Palace in Split and proposals for extensible houses. Herman Hertzberger published in the same journal article on " reciprocity of form" and " identity of the inhabitants ". His models are the historical arenas of Arles and Lucca, which were converted into a city, modified and dismantled.
Examples of co-determination
The theory of John Habraken has resulted not only in the Netherlands but also in Germany, Austria and other countries, to groundbreaking participation projects. From the Dutch projects, which are often published in international architectural publications, then two positive and shown as a controversial third example:
- Housing " Scheepstimmermanstraat " in Amsterdam, 1997. Ship carpenter street in the district of Borneo Sporenburg. For residents the choice of architectural style and the architect is free. For urban plans and the coordination Adriaan Geuze is responsible.
- Housing " Diagoon " in Delft, 1971. Interpretable townhouses. The participation is provided for the interior, the facade and landscaping. The architecture is derived by Herman Hertzberger.
- Housing in the 1920s in The Hague. In 2011, the theory of the participation of John Habraken again currently in the Netherlands in connection with a question participatory project in The Hague. Here are stimulated increases in districts that Berlage designed. When increasing a duiker - Jan- building arise violent protests by Umwohnenden, but also by architects. Herman Hertzberger, an important representative of participation, rejects the Duiker - topping from the following words: " Significant architectural remains (of Duiker, Wils, Dudok and others) must be in original condition received. Man sets but no floor on the municipal museum in The Hague ( Berlage ). "