An Astronomical Yearbook is an annual publication book in which all take place in the following year, astronomical events and / or the timing of the planet or star positions are listed.
In recent decades, many of the articles published in individual states yearbooks were joined to form international publications. Today, they are not always (or only partially ) published as a print works, but also published on the internet.
These ephemerides of the major celestial bodies, the length and accuracy of each of the tables depends on the use and with the desired efficiency in interpolating between the columns or rows. The most important parameter here is the table interval, which is usually
- The moon between 1 hour and 1 day is,
- Sun and Mercury in 1 to 10 days
- At Venus, Mars, and small planetary gears 5 to 20 days
- Jupiter, Saturn and the outer planets about 10 to 30 days
- And the fundamental stars from 1 to 10 days.
The arguments ( time points) of the tabulated coordinates refer to either Dynamic time (sun, planet ) or to approximate Universal Time, also for the daily fractions are common. Fundamental stars are often tabulated according to their Greenwich culmination, so that the panel intervals correspond to 1 or 10 star days.
Astronomical Yearbooks ( engl. also en: Almanac ) can be interpreted internationally (eg the scientific astrometry ) or for a specific region ( especially for lovers astronomers ).
In addition to the tabular data an astronomical yearbook usually include information on solar and lunar eclipses and occultations over ( by the moon and planets ) and an introduction to the scientific fundamentals. Many works also give observational evidence, particularly for rare celestial phenomena. Astronomical Yearbooks for the general public go a rule, only the astronomical events observable in the Country; Many newspapers take on the most important announcements in the form of a monthly overview.
Common astronomical yearbooks
Known examples of astronomical yearbooks are:
- International Nautical Almanac, for celestial navigation and for approximate astro- geodetic calculations ( Himmelsörter to 0.1 ' accuracy)
- Astronomical Almanac - since 1960 the official yearbook of the International Astronomical Union ( IAU) and IUGG
- Berlin Astronomical Yearbook, whose predecessor (1776-1960) - the first astro - geodetic Yearbook high precision ( star positions to 0.01 " exactly planets to 0.1 " )
- Astronomical and Geodetic Yearbook ( "Heidelberg yearbook " until 1959) with a focus for geodesy
- Connaissance des temps, France, has been published since 1679
- Astronomitscheski Jeschegodnik, Russia, since 1921 appears.
- Cosmos sky year, Kosmos
- The starry sky ( in Switzerland as " Naef " known), Kosmos
- Austrian Calendar in the sky, Astronomical Vienna Office
- Calendar for Star Friends ( DDR 1948-1990 ), short name Ahnert, today Astronomical than Ahnerts yearbook in SuW -Verlag Heidelberg.