The NHK (Japanese日本 放送 协会, literally. Japanese broadcasting company, English Japan Broadcasting Corporation), abbreviated in Japanese with Latin letters NHK ( enu eichi kei), is the only public law organized broadcasting company in Japan. It operates several national television and radio programs and an extensive international service called NHK World (Radio Japan / NHK World TV). NHK collects license fees. Headquartered in Shibuya, Tokyo Prefecture. Legal basis for NHK Broadcasting Act (放送 法, Hoso - hō ) of 1950 it is organized as a semi- state company (Japanese特殊 法人, tokushu Hojin, literally: special entity). . Chairman ( KAICHÔ ) since January 2014 Katsuto Momii.
The NHK came to New Year 1926 from the merger of the Tokyo Broadcasting Station ( Tōkyō Hōsōkyoku ,东京 放送 局, founded in 1924) its first president Gotō Shinpei was, with those in Nagoya and Osaka. In 1925 it had come to the first radio broadcast in Japan.
Started in 1948 with NHK public television test broadcasts that aired regularly since 1950. On 1 February 1953, NHK became the first station on the regular broadcast television operation with the equipment necessary for this was designed by the NHK itself. To launch date, there were 866 receiving contracts, with about half of these viewers Radio Amateurs with homemade television receivers were. Initially, there were only transmission facilities in Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka, which were connected to each other via radio. 1956 included this already large cities across the country.
In contrast to the German-speaking world in the decades later a private sector competition occurred, the first Japanese commercial broadcaster Nippon TV was already in the August 28, 1953 broadcast.
On 10 January 1959, the second NHK NHK Kyoiku Television followed ( NHK教育 テレビ ジョン, NHK Kyoiku Terebishon, Eng. NHK Educational TV).
The transmitter produces two national terrestrial TV Full Programs: Sogo terebi (総合 テレビ, such as " public television ", Eng NHK General TV, in short. NHK G) on channel 1 (Tokyo) and Kyoiku Terebi (教育 テレビ, " educational television ", in short: eテレī, tere, English NHK Educational TV, in short. NHK e) on channel 3 (Tokyo). General TV is the main transmitter of NHK, which mainly broadcasts news and entertainment programs. The main program of NHK is supplemented at certain transmission times by regional news and reports. These are fed by NHK studios in the regions or prefectures of Japan. The program of the Educational TV station consists of 80 percent of educational programs. These are mainly aimed at a younger audience.
NHK radiates through the BS satellites two full programs of: BS1 and BS Premium (BSプレミアム). The former station BS2 and BS -hi were merged in April 2011 to the transmitter BS Premium. The focus of BS1 focuses on news and coverage of live sporting events. On the transmitter BS Premium particularly cultural and entertainment programs are broadcast.
A self-produced news program is broadcast every hour. Then there are the " time for the news from abroad ", composed of news programs from the BBC, ZDF, RTR, France 2, TVE, Al Jazeera, KBS, CCTV, ABC ( USA) and CNN, which are broadcast each bilingual.
While the satellite channels BS1 and BS Premium are often fed into cable networks, NHK General TV and NHK Educational TV are exclusively terrestrial - with the exception of the prefectures of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima, where they are available in July 2011, only digitally via ISDB -T - and on cable television. It should be noted that the supply of digital satellite TV often happens to the cable network with a reduction in the data rate.
NHK World TV
NHK World TV is the world free of charge via the PanAmSat satellite 8,9,10 -to-air English-language international broadcaster NHK. At this station are mainly broadcast news and documentaries. In addition, NHK offers on the satellite above even the pay-TV broadcaster NHK World Premium, which can be subscribed from outside Europe and the U.S. around the world. In Europe, the news channel NHK World TV since the end of September 2008 be received unencrypted via the satellite Astra 1M; In Germany, NHK World TV is also widely unencrypted on the cable network NetCologne and wilhelm.tel.
In addition, there is on the market in Europe, the transmitter JSTV and for the market in the U.S. TV Japan. Here is the program from the programs of both NHK and private broadcasters such as Fuji TV. On JSTV the NHK news broadcasts are live and how individual other international broadcasts of NHK broadcast unencrypted, the evening NHK News 7 main news programs, NewsWatch 9 and some weekly shows are broadcast with English on a second audio channel synchronization.
There is also a live stream on the website of NHK available.
NHK World Radio Japan
The international service of NHK offers in its General Service to an informative program in Japanese and English. More foreign language programs in nearly 20 different languages , is addressed mainly to listeners in Asia and Europe. Japan Radio broadcast from 1937 to 2007 in the German language. Last 30 minutes each program were sent to German twice a day. The offers on German and Swedish, Italian and Malay were terminated on 30 September 2007.
Are used currently shortwave transmitters in Yamata, Koga and towers of Radio Africa No. 1 in Gabon, in Canada, in French Guiana, as well as transmitters of Merlin Communications, which operates the BBC transmitters in the UK, Singapore and the Ascension Islands. From 2008, we also sent for some months on the now disused Sendeanlange Wertachtal. The program can also be heard via a live stream, as well as audio on demand.
NHK operates the nation's 54 regional broadcasting studios as well as 14 branches. In each of the 47 prefectures of Japan is a studio. There are also six other studios in the prefecture of Hokkaido and another in Fukuoka. The broadcaster divided Japan into eight regions, in each of which a regional studio as a base (地域 拠 点 局, chiiki kyotenkyoku ), the company responsible. Regional windows in the NHK television, for example, in news programs, are bipartite: First, then sends the " Base Studio ' messages for the entire Greater Region, then the local studio Prefecture messages. The eight studios and associated regions are: Hokkaido Sapporo for, Sendai for Tohoku, the NHK broadcasting center in Shibuya for Kanto Kōshin'etsu, Nagoya for Tōkai - Hokuriku, Kansai Osaka to Hiroshima for Chugoku, Shikoku Matsuyama and Fukuoka for Kyushu with Okinawa. Instead of the prefecture broadcasts a hookup (広 域 放送, Koiki HOSO ) is sent in the three largest metropolitan areas Kanto, Kinki and Chūkyō for several prefectures.
NHK is almost exclusively financed through license fees (受 信 料, jushinryō ) Japanese viewers. The legal basis for this source of income is Article 64 of the Broadcasting Act. This obliges every Japanese household, the NHK programs can receive about installed devices to pay fees. Currently, however, the height of the annual fee 14,160 Yen ( € 100) for households without satellite and 24,650 Yen (174 € ) for households with satellite, in the prefecture of Okinawa 12,440 ( € 88) or 22,930 yen (162 € ). For standing orders there is a discount of 560 yen ( € 4). The charges were reduced to 750 and 870 yen in October 2012 for the first time since 1968, which was mainly due to the new digital distribution possibilities.
The total revenue through license fees amount annually to 650-700 billion yen (about 6.7 to 7.2 billion euros). The revenue from other sources, for example by the provision of programs or financial income make each year from less than five percent of total receipts. In fiscal year 2012 came from the 649 billion yen in total revenue only 22 billion yen from sources other than the license fee. This corresponds to about 3.4 percent.