The capital of the province of Niassa is the city of Lichinga with about 85 758 inhabitants. Niassa is the largest and most fertile province of Mozambique, at the same time but also the most sparsely populated. After the independence of the country in 1975, an attempt was made to resettle people from other provinces in Niassa. These attempts, however, remained unsuccessful. In 1980, Niassa only 300,000 inhabitants, 16 years later, the population was estimated at least 782 365 people.
1996 was found unoccupied land available according to an agreement signed by President Chissano and South African President Mandela agreement South African farmers.
Niassa is also the highest altitude Province of Mozambique and is situated in a average height of 700 m. The Lichinga Plateau, which occupies about a quarter of the province, reaching heights of up to 1500 m. The Mount Txitonga is with 1848 meters the highest point in the province.
The majority of the population comes from the ethnic group of the Yao. Many people speak Yao, Nyanja or Makua.
In the north of the province is the Niassa Game Reserve, the largest protected area of Mozambique.
The Niassa province is again divided into 15 districts: