Nicola Vaccai (also: Vaccaj ) ( born March 15, 1790 in Tolentino at Ancona; † August 5, 1848 in Pesaro ) was an Italian composer and music educator. During his lifetime he was one of the most influential composers of Italian bel canto. Today he is known primarily for its Practical Method of Italian Singing.
Vaccai formed in Naples under Paisiello the dramatic composers and as such had great success, particularly with his opera Giulietta e Romeo (1825 ), the third act so effective was that one him partially the egg of Vincenzo Bellini's I Capuleti Montecchi ( 1830) substituted.
From 1829 Vaccai worked for several years in Paris and London as a singing teacher, before 1838 the post of first composition teacher at the Milan Conservatory took over, which he held until his death. He died on 5 August 1848 in Pesaro.
Besides his numerous operas and sacred works he acquired a lasting contribution by two Studies for the singing lessons: Metodo di canto italiano pratico by camera and Dodici ariette per camera, per l' insegnamento del bel canto italiano.
Metodo di canto italiano pratico
Vaccais Practical Method of Italian Singing ( Metodo di canto italiano pratico ) was published in 1832 in Italian. It addresses both the singing amateurs as well as to the professional singers. It was the author's intention to give the students singing a collection of exercises on the hand that is not due to the mechanical repetition of Solfeggien and vocalizations. In this way, the study of song should make " amusing, entertaining and useful." As a textual basis chose Vaccai short poems Metastasio, one of the most important librettist of settecento.
As a result, the work was translated into German and English. It consists of 15 lessons, each in the form of short songs for voice and piano. The first five lessons deal with the Legato at different intervals. The other lessons treat coloratura, ornaments, portamenti and the recitative.
Today, the Metodo Pratico is one of the most prevalent schools of classical singing.
- I solitari di Scozia (Naples, Teatro Nuovo, February 18, 1815)
- Malvina (Venice, Teatro San Benedetto, June 8, 1816)
- Il lupo di Ostenda, ossia L' innocenza salvata dalla colpa (Venice, Teatro San Benedetto, June 17, 1818)
- Pietro il grande, ossia Un geloso alla tortura (Parma, Teatro Ducale, January 17 1824)
- La pastorella feudataria (Turin, Teatro Carignano 18 September, 1824)
- Zadig ed Astartea (Naples, Teatro San Carlo, February 21, 1825)
- Giulietta e Romeo (Milan, Teatro della Canobbiana 31 October, 1825)
- Bianca di Messina (Turin, Teatro Regio, January 20, 1826)
- Il Precipizio, o Le Fucine di Norvegia (Milan, Teatro alla Scala, 16 August, 1826)
- Giovanna d' Arco (Venice, Teatro La Fenice, February 17, 1827)
- Saladino e Clotilde (Milan, Teatro alla Scala, February 4, 1828)
- Alexi (Naples, Teatro San Carlo, July 6, 1828 )
- Saul (Naples, Teatro San Carlo March 11, 1829, composed in 1825 or 1826)
- Giovanna Grey ( Milan, Teatro alla Scala, February 23, 1836)
- Marco Visconti (Turin, Teatro Regio 27 January 1838)
- La sposa di Messina (Venice, Teatro La Fenice, March 2, 1839)
- Virginia ( Rome, Teatro Apollo 14 January 1845)
- Nicola Vaccai: Metodo di canto italiano pratico, Frankfurt, CF Peters; German Practical Method of Italian Singing, Munich, Ricordi & Co., reprint under ISBN 979-0204226375