- 3.1 Connected to the place
Nida was originally, like all the Curonian Spit, inhabited by people of the Baltic cures. The first documented mention was Nida in 1385 in documents of the Teutonic Order. The original location of the place until 1675 was a good five kilometers to the south side of the High Dune on Grabber hook ( Old Prussian Grabis = mountain ). The second village location of Nida - caused by silting - was from about 1675 to the 1730s right on Haffstrand, approximately at the level of the grabber hooks. The name derives from Old Prussian Nida envy, nid, nida: flow, on and dive.
Nida was located on the Post Road from Konigsberg to Memel.
1709 almost the entire population of Nida was carried off by the plague. The Agnes Miegel described in her poem The Women of Nida plague cemetery is located just south of the second spatial location.
If you repeat this silting one was forced again in 1730 to build up the place before the Parnidis Dune a third time. Nida were the small villages Skruzdyne ( nehrungs - Curonian " skruzde ": Ant ) and Purwin ( Old Prussian Purwins: dirty place, marsh; lithuanian Purvynė ) attached. Today Nida is with 1500 permanent inhabitants the largest town on the Curonian Spit. Nida is located 48 km from Klaipeda and four kilometers from the border with the Russian Federation removed.
Until 1919 Nida belonged to the German Empire; with the conclusion of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, the town was the League of Nations - mandated territory of Memel land allotted (with border against East Prussia few miles south, at about the current border against the Russian Kaliningradskaja Oblast in the field of High Dune, Parnidžio Kopa ); From 1923 to 1939 it was part of independent Lithuania, 1939-1945 back to the German Empire and from 1945 until 1990 on the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, from 1990 to again independent Lithuania.
Almost all the inhabitants of Nida - as the entire Curonian Spit - escaped 1944/45, before the advancing Red Army to the west. The Soviet troops occupied Nida in February 1945. The Evangelical Lutheran Church Fischer was completely plundered, devastated the old fisherman cemetery with its wooden Curonian grave monuments ( cures crosses), the images and the collection of paintings by Ernst Mollenhauer burned by soldiers. The heavy wooden fishing boats that cures barges with their characteristic pennants were sunk in the lagoon. The Curonian Spit with Nida was a closed military zone, sealed off until 1961. The resettlement was carried out with residents of other former Soviet republics, not primarily with Lithuanians.
Especially after the attainment of Lithuanian independence in 1991, a very successful restoration and rebuilding of Nida was operated, driven not least by tourism.
The Protestant Church in Nida was built next to the old cemetery on a small hill and still stands today. In October 1888, the church was built in the Gothic style of red bricks. The altar and the pulpit are threatened by siltation from the church in Kunzen (Russian: Krasnoretschje, not more exist) originate. A striking wooden ceiling and window glass paintings give the interior of the church. The altar wall consists of an image of Ernst Mollenhauer and shows the rescue of the sinking Peter by Jesus. The organ is a work of the master organ builder Gebauer from Königsberg ( Prussia). The two altar candlesticks donated Empress Auguste Viktoria. During the Soviet times the church found an unfair use as a local museum. Today, it is again the house of God, in which in the summer months, services are held in German language.
Prior to the establishment of a parish in the former Nida, the village belonged to the parish until the then defunct village Kunzen (Russian: Krasnoretschje ), then in 1797 to the parish Schwarzort (now Lithuanian: Juodkrantė ). In 1812 services were held in a building that served as a parish and school house until the 1860s. 1847 an independent church was built with eigeneer pastorate and 1854 with the neighboring towns Preil (now Lithuanian: Preila ) and Perwelk ( Pervalka ) combined to form a parish, which existed until 1945 and the church district of Memel ( Klaipeda ) within the Ecclesiastical Province of East Prussia the Church of the Old Prussian Union belonged. In the 1990s, the church life has been enabled, so today is a prestigious community of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Lithuania, Nida.
Pastor in Nida (1847-1945)
Between 1847 and 1945, officiating ( in number of vacancy times ) in Nida 19 Protestant clergymen:
- Gustav Egbert Sylla, 1847-1855
- Johann Pipirs, 1861-1863
- Albert Fr Th Hoff Heinz, 1863-1868
- Christoph G. E. Pohl, 1868-1873
- August Jussas, 1873-1876
- Karl Gustav Julius Echternach, 1876-1894
- Hermann Robert Jopp, 1894-1903
- Arthur Bruno Heinrich Pipirs, 1903-1906
- Franz Großjohann, 1906-1913
- Eduard Kittlaus, 1915-1918
- Johannes Magnus, 1918-1923
- Paul Schencke, 1923-1925
- Georg Henkys, 1927-1929
- Ewald Edelhoff ( Vicar ), 1929-1930
- John Kypke, 1930-1935
- Bruno Ribbat ( Vicar ), 1936-1937
- Johann Buttgereit ( Vicar ), 1936-1940
- Walter Pallentin, 1942-1943
- Waldemar Küther, 1943-1945
Nida is a Catholic church was built in 2003 in the town center, which was built according to the plans of architect Nidaer Ričardas Krištapavičis and Algimatas Zavisa. The church wearing a thatched roof, and the white church spire with a cross is visible from afar. The municipality belongs to the Catholic Church in Lithuania.
Associated with the place
- Thomas Mann (1875-1955), German writer, worked and recovered in Nida 1929-1932
- Ernst Mollenhauer (1892-1963), German landscape painter, lived and worked from 1924 to 1925 in Nida
By far the most important industry in Nida is tourism. The place is considered the most well-known attraction for foreign tourists in Lithuania. Visitors come in part from Lithuania, but also from Germany, Scandinavia and the rest of the Baltic region. Nida is a well-developed infrastructure and gastronomic many hotels in different price categories. In addition, there is a dense network of hiking trails, bike trails and camping facilities.
Nida is located five kilometers north of the border with the Russian Kaliningrad Oblast ( region Königsberg ( Prussia) ). West of the village held regional road KK 167, which passes on the Russian side in the trunk road R 515 and in this way Klaipeda ( Memel ) with Selenogradsk ( Cranz ) connects.
It there are several daily buses from the central bus station to Klaipeda and continue to Kaunas, Vilnius ( Vilna German ) and Liepaja ( Libau German ). In addition, a bus service exists on the Russian side of the Spit.
As the main attraction of Nida applies a scenic location on the Haffküste the Curonian Spit. To Nida around there are many forests, heath and dune areas. Among other things, here is the after the Dune du Pyla, near Arcachon second highest dune in Europe, the High Dune.
- Artist colony
With the emergence of Expressionism 1900 it attracted a number of artists to Nidden, including such well-known artists such as Lovis Corinth, Max Pechstein and Karl Schmidt- Rottluff. To the former meeting place of the painter, the inn Blode, the Nida Artists' Colony was established; The inn also exists under the name Nido Smilte today.
- Thomas Mann House
Built in 1929, the former holiday home of Thomas Mann, in which the poet - with great views over the lagoon - the summer holidays from 1930 to 1932 spent with his family and at the same time working on his novel Joseph ( Thomas Mann's summer house is now a museum ),
- Amber Museum
- Old cemetery
With the typical cures crosses
- Fisherman's Museum
A typical house of a hundred years ago based in Nida Fischer family.
- Beach promenade
Nida has a remarkable beach promenade and a marina with views of the Hohe Dune.
- Memorial gliding
To the south of Nida is located east in the forest - even by the High dune to see - a memorial to the pioneers of the Lithuanian gliding. There is also a monument that pays tribute to the German world record - Gliders Ferdinand Schulz.