Nomen novum

As a replacement name (or new replacement name) a name for a species or category is referred to in zoology, which was explicitly proposed for a different name. The English title is " new replacement name", the Latin name nomen novum is used frequently.

Often can not use the older name because another animal has been previously designated by the exact same name. For example, remarked Lindholm 1913 that introduced by Bourguignat 1877 for a European freshwater snail genus name Jelskia could not be used because another author, Taczanowski, had in 1871 assigned the same name for a spider. So Lindholm suggested the name Borysthenia. This is an objective synonym of Jelskia Bourguignat, 1877, because he has the same type species, and is used to this day.

Even with species names replacement names are often necessary. Even before more than 100 years of substitute names were suggested. Bourguignat remarked in 1859 that the name Bulimus cinereus Mortillet, 1851, for an Italian screw could not be used because Reeve had already been introduced in 1848 exactly the same name for a completely different Bolivian screw. As was already known that the older name always wins, Bourguignat led thus expressly replacement name Bulimus psarolenus and also why wrote. Today, this worm under the name Solatopupa psarolena ( Bourguignat, 1859) is known.

Little known is that a replacement name must obey certain rules.

Not every author who suggests a name for a type that already has a different name, so that introduces a replacement name. An author who says " I call the insect with the green points x, which is the one that has called y the other author " so that does not introduce a replacement name, but a " normal " new name.

The International Rules for Zoological Nomenclature ( ICZN Code) require that, for introducing a substitute name a "expressed statement" must be present, so an explicit statement that focuses on the process of replacing a different name. Many zoologists do not know that this "expressed statement" is necessary, and therefore often all sorts of names are designated as a replacement name, often including names that were mentioned without any description. For example, a 1807 without description mentioned by Ferussac small freshwater mussel was designated as Cyclas lacustris, Ferussac gave this comment a synonym ( Cyclas ovalis ). This name was later changed to an important work on French molluscs as a replacement name for Tellina lacustris sensu Draparnaud ( which therefore means other than Tellina lacustris Müller, had misidentified 1774 ) referred. Since Ferussac had in 1807 but not published "expressed statement", this interpretation is not in the sense of the ICZN Code. In addition, the replacement name would have replaced no available name because Tellina lacustris sensu Draparnaud was no available name. Because the name was no description, he was also 1807 not exposed by Ferussac as a normal name.

Whoever proposes an alternative name, have to say exactly what he intended to replace previously imported names. Three synonyms to replace all at once is not possible. Usually this is also written why the replacement name is needed.

Sometimes we read " P. brasiliensis can not be called, because the animal does not live in Brazil, so the new name P. angolana ". Even if according to the current regulations is no reason, here's a replacement name has been introduced because it was believed the elderly can not be used according to the rules, and because a "expressed statement" is present ( the process of replacing explicitly addressed ).

Can be used for a taxon of a substitute name only if the name, it replaces actually can not be used, as in the example above with the worm and the spider, or in another example, with the Italian and Bolivian screw. The beast from Angola has to follow the rules, however, continue brasiliensis hot, because this is the older name.

Replacement names are not very common, but not extremely rare. About 1% of zoological species names that are used today may be alternative name. Accurate statistics do not exist.