An amendment (Latin novus ' new ', Italian novella, piece of news ') is a shorter story (see also Kurzepik ) in prose form. As a genus it is difficult to define and often distinguish only ex negative of the other document types. In terms of scope noticed Hugo Aust, the amendment have often an average length, which shows itself in the fact that it must be read in a train. The term novella ( it diminished [ reduced ] form ) indicates a novelty. Often the reference to the Italian Renaissance church of Santa Maria Novella is cited, which suggests the time of their occurrence. As the founder of the novella tradition of Italian Giovanni Boccaccio applies due to the written by him Decameron (, ten days work ' ).
Characteristics of the short story as a literary genre
A novella is a narrative of shorter to medium length. Often a conflict between order and chaos is described therein, leading to a breach of norms and uniqueness. The story is told as a rule a single event, comes the expression, the amendment is committed to the singularity. Stories are usually very clearly structured and have a closed form. Often, the novel has a theme and a ( thing ) symbol. In many novels chance also plays a central role and is often the constituent element.
Goethe formulated in 1827 in a conversation with Johann Peter Eckermann as an essential feature of the novella " an outrageous incident occurred ." In Goethe's work is novel from a " strange, unheard-of event " is mentioned. This event is often the turning point of the action based on this Fritz Martini However, according to shifts in the 19th century the focus away from the unexpected, puzzling fact and to the " psychologically special character, his inner spiritual movement and his skill ." Often, then, the protagonists suffer from isolation, exclusion or lack of communication.
Other features of the amendment are tight, predominantly linear storyline guide, the exchange between a highly rapacious action report and the targeted use of scenic and wider educated matches to the climax and turning points ( denouement ), while the plot at the end usually fades and the future of the figures is only indicated. Typical are pre- interpretation and integration techniques such as leitmotifs, Ding symbols, the dominance of the event adhering and embedding the main story in a frame story.
Demarcation to drama and short story
Theodor Storm wrote that the amendment was due to their composed and structured structure " the sister of the drama ." Due to the shortness of short stories is usually due to only a brief exposure, which leads the reader directly into the action. In contrast to the short story are typical of the amendment to a consistent formulation of the central conflict, a tendency toward the closed form, a dialogic character as well as a high density. The amendment research has identified that the amendment can often be interpreted symbolically and facts packed down to one - Aust - " unfathomable sense of space" creates.
Amendment theory Heyse ( " Falk " theory )
Regularly formulated by Paul Heyse Falk theory is cited in connection with the amendment, the silhouette designate the two categories (focus on the basic motif in the course of action ) and Falcon ( Ding symbol / icon for the problem of the amendment ) as a novella typical. Heyse leads his Falk theory based on Boccaccio Falk novella from the Decameron ( 9th amendment of the 5th day ), but declared it the character of novelistic literature only fragmentary and misleading, especially because its choice of amendment typically is not for the novellas of the Decameron.
Examples of short stories
Within the German literature, the novel creation reached its peak in the 19th century, especially among authors that are attributable to the poetic realism. Well-known author of short stories in German literature are, for example, Heinrich von Kleist, Conrad Ferdinand Meyer, Eduard Moerike, Theodor Storm, Paul Heyse, Gottfried Keller, Theodor Fontane, Gerhart Hauptmann, Stefan Zweig, Georg Büchner, Annette von Droste- Hulshoff, Thomas man, Wilhelm Raabe, Ludwig Tieck and in the presence Hartmut Lange and Uwe Timm.
Well-known German -language novellas include:
- Framework amendment
- Chinese novella Xiaoshuo