NPP Zvezda (Russian НПП Звезда, English RD & PE Zvezda ) is a Russian manufacturer of Tomilino in Moscow of life support systems for aircraft and manned space flight. The products range from space suits on ejection seats, up to life jackets and fire extinguishing systems. The name " Zvezda " means " star" in Russian.
NPP Zvezda was founded in 1952 for the development of pressure suits and air refueling systems. In the 1960s, the development of space suits began. The first man in space, Yuri Gagarin, was equipped with an SK -1 suit of NPP Zvezda. The Sokol space suits used during start of Soyuz spaceships come as well as those used on the International Space Station Russian Orlan -M spacesuits for this manufacturer. Since 1994, Zvezda is a privately owned company in the form of a corporation.
The chief engineer and general manager until 2008 Gai Ilyich Severin.
History of development
Developed between 1953 and 1957 and built NPP Zvezda pressurized cabins for animals. They had a life support system and have been used for flight experiments aboard sounding rockets. From 1959 to 1961, the development of the " Skafander Kosmitscheski -1" or " Space Suit -1 " was shown for the first Vostok flight. Yuri Gagarin Vostok and Voskhod and the other cosmonauts flew with a suit of " SK-1 " series into space. The first woman cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova was matched with one of the female physiology and " SK -2" that version equipped.
After Zvezda developed from 1964 to 1965 the first suit for a spacewalk (EVA ), called " Berkut ". With this Alexei Leonov stepped out during the Voskhod - 2 mission as the first man into space. It was founded in 1967 a new model called " Jastreb " developed. This was used by the cosmonauts Jelissejew and Khrunov during Sojus-4/5-Mission 1969.
After the tragic loss of the Soyuz -11 crew, the Soviet government ordered the development of a rescue suit for takeoff and landing. From experience with the SK- 1 and the pressure suit for fighter pilots " Sokol " was the " Sokol -K " called space suit.
For EVA space suit was developed in the 1970s of " Orlan ", which over the years several modifications went through ( Orlan -D, Orlan -DM, Orlan - DMA) The latest variant " Orlan -M" comes in extravehicular activities in the Russian part of the International space station for use.
Ejection seat production
NPP Zvezda is the main supplier of the Russian Air Force with ejection seats. The model K -36 is considered by many experts to be the world leader. The system has been extensively studied by the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force. IBP Aircraft had already opened a production facility to install the seat in the U.S. for the Lockheed F -22 and Lockheed Martin F -35. However, the U.S. government chose for political reasons from the British manufacturer Martin Baker ejection seat for a new fighter aircraft.
So far the following ejection seat models were made :
- K -36 - basic model
- K- 36D - production model (used in Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG- 29C, Sukhoi Su -27)
- K- 36DM - series model (used in Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG -29A )
- K- 36D -3, 5 - series model (proposed for the F -22 and Lockheed F -35 JSF, but used in Sukhoi T -50)
- K -37 - series model (used in Kamov Ka -50 Kamov Ka - and -52 combat helicopters )
- К - 93L -39 - series model (used in Aero L -39 Albatros )
- K- 36L -3, 5YA - new variant, undetermined
- CKC - 94M - Series model ( for light aircraft like Sukhoi Su -26, Yak- 52)
- СКС - 94М -1 - standard model with variable height adjustment, Weight 25 kg
- СКС - 94М2 - improved production model for a 30 year lifespan