Occipital bone

The occiput (also occiput; Latin occiput occiput or short ) is located in the neck transition portion of the skull. It forms the rear end of the cranial cavity and the Atlas the first head joint.

The occiput can be divided into three components:

  • Basilar part: the bottom part, a part of the posterior cranial base
  • Pars lateralis: side
  • Occipital squama: occipital ( back), in which a distinction in the development phase is between: Under Scale ( created by chondral ossification )
  • Upper Scale ( produced by intramembranous ossification )

Between the upper and lower scale runs the suture mendosa. You ossified in the 3rd month of life and then as superior nuchal line (upper neckline) to the bone visible.

The occipital bone is formed by the merger of four bones, namely the basal, the two lateral and upper occipital bone. The horizontal part is pierced by a strong thumb hole ( foramen magnum or foramen magnum ), by which, however, enter the spinal cord from the skull into the spinal canal, vertebral arteries from the outside into the cranial cavity. Are the two convex articular processes by means of which the whole head can move on the first cervical vertebra to the front and rear, bend and stretch on both sides of this hole.

On the bottom of the occipital bone has a passage opening for the 12th cranial nerve ( hypoglossal nerve ), which is called hypoglossal canal. Prior to an extension, the processus jugularis, the domestic animals the processus paracondylaris bears ( origin of the digastric muscle ) rises.

On the neck area, the external occipital protuberance rises, attach to the muscles in horses and cattle, and the neck band.