As offshore building a permanent construction are referred to in the open sea off the coast (English: offshore) were built. These include, for example, oil rigs, wind turbines, substations and research platforms, but also pipelines. In a narrower sense, it refers to buildings that are more than twelve nautical miles are located off the coast line and thus are beyond the national territorial waters.
Offshore structures can have a huge impact on the environment. So wind turbines can interfere act of resting, foraging and wintering seabirds. Even losses can occur due to bird strike. Furthermore, it can result in the formation of artificial magnetic and electric fields, which can lead to disruption of orientation in fish by electric cables between the equipment and the land.
For safe installation of offshore structures special foundation forms are necessary. With rigs tested already for a long time are truss structures that are placed on the seabed ( BCs ). Recent developments also set either to structures that are on the ocean floor ( tripods, Heavyweight ups, bucket foundations) or make use of the carrying capacity of piles that are driven into the seabed ( monopile, Tripile - ups).
Also be tested non-fixed start-ups to large floats ( " floating foundations ").