The Oireachtas [ ɛr ʲ əxt̪ ˠ əs ˠ ] ( with ir item to tOireachtas [ ən t ˠ ɛr ʲ əxt̪ ˠ əs ˠ ], German legislation ), and occasionally Oireachtas Éireann ( the laws of Ireland ), is the national parliament of the Republic of Ireland. It is composed of the President of Ireland and two chambers, the Dáil Éireann ( lower house) and the Senate ( Seanad Éireann house and upper house ) together. The Dáil has here the wider powers. Both houses of the Oireachtas have their seat in Leinster House in Dublin.
Before a law comes into force, it must theoretically adopted by the Dáil and Seanad and the are then signed by the President. However, the Dáil is the authoritative instance in Irish legislation, because the president is normally obliged to sign any law that was passed by both Houses of the Oireachtas, and the Seanad normally only delay a law, but it can not prevent it.
The Constitution of Ireland is the Oireachtas the exclusive rights to
- Legislation, including the budget ( the legislation can be assigned to lower-level instances, however, this has not happened yet )
- Vorschlagung of constitutional amendments, but must be confirmed by a plebiscite
- Formation of an army
- Implementation of international treaties into Irish law
- Adoption of laws with extra - territorial effects (in line with similar practices in other states)
- Regulation of emergency laws when a state of emergency was proclaimed
The powers of the Oireachtas will be constrained by the following rules:
- Laws are invalid if they are unconstitutional
- EU laws have precedence over laws of the Oireachtas
- Deeds must not be criminalized retroactively
- Laws concerning the reintroduction of the death penalty are illegal, even during a state of emergency
- The laws of the Oireachtas are valid under Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution only for the 26 counties of Ireland and not for Northern Ireland
The word comes from the Irish Oireachtas and stands for legislation. It was the name for two parliaments in Irish history: the Parliament of the Republic of Ireland since 1937 and the Parliament of the Irish Free State (1922 - 1937).
The first Parliament of Ireland existed as a "parliament of Ireland " until 1801 Its scope included the entire island of Ireland, but was -. , More or less - a child of the English and later British Parliament. It consisted of the king of Ireland, the House of Lords (nobility chamber ) and the House of Commons (People's Chamber). In 1801, with the Act of Union, managed itself off.
The next legislation in Ireland arose again until 1919: An extra- legal parliament with only one chamber, known as Dáil Éireann ( about: Assembly of Ireland). Made it was used by Irish nationalists. During the first Dáil was officially legislative power for the whole of Ireland, the British government in 1920, constituting another Parliament: the " Parliament of Southern Ireland ". This was, however, boycotted by Irish nationalists and could thus never develop its full power. Made it was used by the British king, the " People's Chamber of Southern Ireland " (House of Commons of Southern Ireland) and the Senate ( Senate of Southern Ireland). Abolished it in 1922 with the Constitution of the Irish Free State and the associated development of the Oireachtas.
The Oireachtas of the Irish Free State consisted officially of the King of Ireland and two chambers - as their successors - were called Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann; the Senate, was abandoned in 1935.
The modern Oireachtas came in 1937 with the adaptation of the Constitution of Ireland.