The Anishinabe ( Anishinaabe ᐊᓂᔑᓈᐯ, dt, the first people, also Ojibwa, Ojibwe or Chippewa written ) are a Native American people of North America. Linguistically, they belong to the Algonkinsprachgruppe (see also Ojibwe ). Their language is divided into several dialects and closely related to the language of the Ottawa Indians. Their traditional settlement area extends across Canada and the northern United States.
Two of the largest tribes of the Anishinabe are the Saulteaux and Mississauga.
Today, about 200,000 Anishinabe in North America, of which about 30,000 still speak the Ojibwa live.
Tribe name ( ethnonym )
The origin of the word ' Ojibwe ' is not yet clear. Edmund Danziger (1978 ) stated, the name derive from Ozhibii'oweg ( ' Those who keep Records of a Vision ' - ' Those who hold their stories in symbols ') here, the name of a neighboring tribe, while Frances Densmore (1929 ), which today commonly accepted interpretation represents, at ' Ojibwe ' Whether they are a linguistic variant ' Anishinaabeg ' and come from a verb that as much as ' roast until it curls ' mean (a reference to the special nature of this seal tribe, the seams of moccasins ). Omitting the O of O'chippewa (a variant of ' Ojibwe ') in faulty Euro American documents later led to the emergence of the word Chippewa, which is used to this day as the official name of the U.S. government.
In addition, in some publications, the two different names for the delimitation of the northern Anishinabe - hunting cultures ( Ojibwa ) of the wild rice Erntern the Great Lakes ( Chippewa ) are used.
Together with the Ottawa and Potawatomi the formed the Anishinabe once the tribal confederation of the Council of the three fires that lived in the area of the east coast of the U.S. and the St. Lawrence River and claimed against the Iroquois League. The people of this tribe Federal later migrated from the Atlantic to the Great Lakes region. According to legend, she followed a sacred object, the so-called " Miigis " shell that had emerged from the ocean and had received from the world of spirits commissioned to lead the people of the Anishinabe in his new country. After the arrival of the Indians at their destination, the mussel showed the Anishinabe for the last time and has since not sighted again. The location of this last revelation is usually indicated with Mooningwanekaning ( Madeline Iceland ) in the Anishinaabe Gichigami ( Lake Superior ).
The Euro-American historiography assumes generally that the Anishinabe in the late 16th and early 17th century migrated to the west of Lake Huron from their original habitat in the area. Of the Anishinabe in the strict sense parted there, the Potawatomi, who settled on the lower peninsula of the State of Michigan, and Ottawa, who settled in the northern part of the province of Ontario on Lake Nipissing. The latter two strains are now regarded as independent nations.
Some Anishinabe moved further westward and sold in the late 18th century, the Dakota of the present-day state of Minnesota. As of 1840, the Anishinabe had settled in the area north of Lake Superior and Lake Huron, as well as in parts of Minnesota, North Dakota, Wisconsin, Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
1850-1923 included the British a number of land-use agreements with various Anishinabe tribes in Canada. The majority of the Anishinabe in the U.S. now lives in seven reservations in Minnesota, Wisconsin and five reserves in a reserve in North Dakota as well as in several major cities, especially the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul at the headwaters of the Mississippi River.
Through various legal and illegal incidents the Anishinabe have today lost much of their reserve lands. Particularly affected by the loss of land, the Leech Lake Chippewa in Minnesota, which now own less than seven percent of their contractually stipulated country. The former Anishinabe land is used by the Euro Americans, especially for electricity production ( dam ) and the timber industry.
The loose tribal confederation from countless local groups never showed a tendency to form a political unit with a central government. The most important point of reference of the Anishinabe Indians was the nuclear family of parents, children and grandparents. Due to the long, hard winter in Canada and the northern United States and the need to traverse vast tracts of land in search of food, were single, separated households who kept in touch with only the nearest neighbors and in which lived several generations under one roof, the norm. In the summer of such households formed small villages, which consisted of 10 to 12 families. Several villages sometimes joined together for better utilization of natural resources to groups of 300-400 people. What kept this independent economic end family groups together, were on the one hand the different skills that earned the individual group members in the community, on the other hand, the common language.
Famous people of the tribe
- Grey Owl (English -born trapper and writer )
- David Wayne "Famous Dave" Anderson ( owner of a nationwide restaurant chain)
- Dennis Banks ( Political activist )
- Adam Beach (Actor)
- Jason Behr ( actor)
- Clyde Bellecourt ( activist )
- Vernon Bellecourt ( activist )
- Steve Collins ( ski jumper )
- George Copway ( missionary and writer )
- Louise Erdrich ( writer )
- Gordon Henry Jr. ( writer )
- Drew Hayden Taylor ( Playwright )
- Basil Johnston ( Historian )
- Peter Jones ( Missionary and Writer )
- Sun Bear ( Vincent LaDuke )
- Winona LaDuke ( Activist and Writer )
- Jim Northrup ( newspaper columnist )
- Keith Secola ( rock and blues singer)
- Drew Hayden Taylor ( Playwright, humorist, columnist )
- David spreader ( writer )
- Shania Twain ( Singer, not by descent, but by her stepfather )
- Buffy Sainte -Marie ( singer, musician )
- Gerald Vizenor ( writer )
- William Whipple Warren ( historian )
- William Gardner ( " incorruptible " Prohibition Agent )
- Virgil Hill ( professional boxer, former world champion in the light heavyweight)
- Chief Bender (baseball player)
- Crystal Shawanda ( singer )
- Ted Nolan ( NHL professional hockey coach )