38.28169.225Koordinaten: 38 ° 16 ' 52 "N, 69 ° 13' 30" E
Okno (Russian Окно for windows ) is the location of the optical- electronic system for the control of space in the Central Asian Republic of Tajikistan. It is one of the most valuable institutions of Russia abroad.
The Okno complex is located 2,200 meters above sea level, about seven kilometers south of the city Norak. The system was designed to control manned and unmanned spacecraft in highly elliptical and geostationary orbits.
Okno represents the eye of the Space Forces of Russia dar. The complex includes ten equipped with electronic rotating and swiveling reflector telescopes, which are housed in a spherical housing. Each of these systems has a total weight of 41 tons. Coming soon (2005 ) to be four more built. The complex is completely automated. This affects the location of objects in an altitude 2000-40000 kilometers, the detection and evaluation of the various data and coordinates and other relevant photometric information of these objects, the calculation of the orbital parameters and the transmission of results to the relevant command centers. At the of a spacecraft reflected sunlight all the information can be read about him, right down to the details of construction, and it will also determine its purpose.
The complex is also suitable for the observation of low earth orbiting at a height of 120-2000 kilometers used satellites.
The possibilities of the complex resulted in many respects from its unique location. Almost throughout the year the weather in this mountainous area is clear, which is ideal for observations. The number of suitable for working night hours - about 1500 hours per year - as well as the transparency and stability of the atmosphere according to the place where Okno is comparable to that in this respect the best region in the world such as the Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory in Chile.
The Americans have four similar observation stations, which are located approximately at the same distance along the equator (in the U.S., on the island of Diego Garcia, in South Korea and Hawaii ). The annual number of sunny days is significantly lower in these places.
The geographical position of Russia is so complex that one of, any U.S. starting point -started at a height of about 200 km space apparatus, already arrived at the first times around the world within the remit of Okno.
The complex in Nurek can solve tasks related to cosmic activities of civilian authorities. In the native complex scientific satellites and space vehicles will be tested and operated with social and economic determination, which are brought to high orbits. A particularly important role is played by the complex in extraordinary situations such as the loss of a satellite or margins in on-board systems for which the technical state of the control systems of the satellite can hardly be estimated.
The complex may also be used for the environmental monitoring of space. It is, for example, the solution of the problem of the so-called space debris. Observed small objects that could pose a threat to satellites. This is extremely important for human spaceflight.
Acute is currently the problem of control of compliance with the legal standards in the carriage of communications satellites in geostationary orbits. In conjunction with radio- technical observation means the complex Okno here is an important tool for the enforcement of state and economic interests of Russia.
The construction of the complex in Nurek had begun in 1979. Following the escalation of the situation in Tajikistan in 1992, the funding had to be temporarily suspended. Only in 1997 was again allocated money in the project. Since the summer of 2002, the complex tentatively belongs to military duty system of Russia. An agreement for use by Russia until 2042 was agreed on 5 October 2012 in Dushanbe. President Vladimir Putin has signed the law in May 2013, the ratification by the Parliament of Tajikistan is still outstanding.
- Template: Internet resource / maintenance / access date is not in the ISO FormatRussia 's military window on space. YouTube, accessed on 24 October 2009 ( English).
- Template: Internet resource / maintenance / access date not в космос in ISO FormatОкно. RuTube, accessed on 22 December 2008 ( in Russian).
- Template: Internet resource / maintenance / access date not in ISO format template: Internet resource / Maintenance / date not in ISO format sourcebook on the Okno ( в / ч 52168 ), Krona ( в / ч 20096 ) and Krona -N ( в / ч 20776 ) Space Surveillance sites. Federation of American Scientists, November 9, 2008, accessed on 22 December 2008 (PDF, 6.4 MB, English, Russian ).
- Template: Internet resource / maintenance / access date not in ISO format template: Internet resource / Maintenance / date is not in the ISO FormatWaleri Guk: Окно в космос. Krasnaya Zvezda, October 18, 2008, accessed December 22, 2008 (in Russian ).