A Okres (plural Okresy ) is the name of a territorial unit in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and former Czechoslovakia. It ( e) is the second stage in the administrative structure that stands between the " Kraje " and the communities.
The direct historical antecedents of Okres 1850 were introduced in the Austrian monarchy " political districts " (as politický okres, Pl politické okresy translated) that were designed quite differently, especially after 1867 ( Austro- Hungarian compensation) on the later Czechoslovak territory (see Political districts in Bohemia, Political districts in Moravia, Hungary counties in today's Slovakia). In Czechoslovakia, the newly created district of old Austrian term was essentially taken in 1922.
During the period of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, the political districts continued to exist largely as counties were introduced in the Reich District of Sudetenland.
In 1946, the subdivision of the unit Okres was partially restructured. On January 1, 1961, in Czechoslovakia in a larger territorial reform, in which the number of districts was reduced. Since the division of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the districts continue to exist both in the Czech Republic and in Slovakia.
In the Czech Republic their skills were on 1 January 2000 with the introduction of higher self-governing territorial units - Kraje (districts ) reduced. The district offices ( Cz okresní úřad ) were abolished on 1 January 2003 in the Czech Republic and transfer the skills part of the districts, but mainly to the municipalities. The Okres is in the Czech Republic since no administrative unit. However, some state ranges remain after the administrative unit Okres divided: courts, public prosecutors, police, employment offices, etc. One uses the division continue as a statistical unit. Stood at the head of this administrative units ( in contrast to the German district office and as in Austria ) not selected but professional bodies. On 1 January 2007, the boundaries of the districts were changed so that smaller communities are always in a Okres, on which the competent neighboring municipality belongs with extended management activity in the Czech Republic.
In Slovakia, the responsibilities of the unit Okres were reduced. Okres is only a formal unit. The offices of the Okres ( Slow okresný úrad ) were abolished and replaced by offices for several units of Okres ( Obvodny úrad ).
Equivalence and translation
In Austria they roughly correspond to the districts, the districts in Germany, but have other skills. In the second half of the 20th century, it corresponded to the powers forth perhaps best circles in the GDR, and the Kraje then met the " districts " of the GDR.
The districts were established in 1850 in Austria, German they were called political district, Czech politický okres. The already older higher territorial unit Kraj has also been referred to as a circle. The Okresy therefore, translated according to the Austrian administrative tradition usually considered districts. In the translation of the word as a district is to be noted however, that the word is obvod translated as district, which is the one for the municipality and on the other the general name for a variety of area subdivisions (at elections, police, etc., in Slovakia also in the created January 1, 2004 between the administrative unit and the Okresy Kraje ).
As a general term for a variety of rather small area subdivisions ( constituencies, etc.), the term is okrsek ( Czech) or okrsok ( Slovak) used. Linguistically, it is a diminutive of Okres.