Old Novgorod dialect

As Altnowgoroder dialect (Russian Древненовгородский диалект / Drewnenowgorodski dialect ) is the Slavic dialect referred to, in which the discovered in the Novgorod region of Russia birch bark documents were written. Introduced the concept of Andrei Salisnjak. The Altnowgoroder dialect is in contrast to Old Russian as the language used in the documents has many features which ( in part and to other Slavic languages) are not typical of other East Slavic dialects. Sometimes used dialect is associated with the Ilmenslawen. An influence had probably the Eastern Baltic languages ​​or the language of the Dniepr Balts. It is assumed that the speakers of this dialect for official texts, the Russian variant of Church Slavonic used as everyday texts were written down in a form of language that resembled the spoken dialect.

Of interest is the existence of relativus mode, which occurs only in the south-eastern group of the South Slavic otherwise.

The term Naugardismus called the linguistic peculiarities of Altnowgoroder dialect, such as the Cokanje, the language- economic use of Auxiliarien or Possessivperfekt. Numerous Naugardismen still exist in the Northwest Russian.

Linguistic features

In this section, some features are shown, most of which are atypical of the East Slavic:

  • The nominative singular of the o-stems ends in- e (as opposed to - ъ ), the accusative singular brat on ' ъ ', eg fry " the brother " and bratъ " the brother " (cf. Russian. - brata );
  • The second palatalization, a general Slavic feature ( although in the Eastern Slavic secondary partially neutralized ) did not take place, eg dative singular reke "river" (not rece );
  • Proto- Slavic * kv, gv * are obtained ( as in the West Slavic ), they were (in Russian see cvet, zvezda ) not cv, zv, such as " color" květ, gvězda "star" before vowels;
  • The third palatalization of / x / has not taken place, eg vьx - "all" vs. vs- modern Russian;
  • There is no phonological difference between c and č,
  • Preposition loose direction coding ( by dative ), eg idi Pliskovu "go to Pskov ( Pskov ) ."

The orthography differs in the use of Jer from, ъ and ь are used synonymously with o and e, respectively.


Scientific literature on the Altnowgoroder dialect there is so far only in Russian:

  • Andrej Anatol'evič Zaliznjak: Drevnenovgorodskij dialect. 1st edition, Moskva 1995, 720 pp., ISBN 5-88766-002-3; 2nd edition, taking into account the findings from 1995-2003, Moskva 2004, 867 pp., ISBN 5-94457-165-9.
  • Idem, " Posleslovie ling vista". In: Valentin L. Janin: Yes poslal tebe berestu .... 3rd edition, Moskva, 1998 [ 1 Ed 1965 ], pp. 425-449.
  • Zep Honselaar: " Sledy okončanija -e m. ed muž. o- sklonenija ". In: Russian Linguistics 21, pp. 271-274.

East Slavonic: Altnowgoroder dialect † | Altostslawisch † | Carpatho - Russinisch | Russian | Ruthenian † | Ukrainian | Belarusian | Westpolessisch

Westslawisch: Kashubian | Knaanisch † | Lower | Upper Sorbian | Polabian † | Pomoranisch † | Polish | Slovak | Slovincian † | Czech

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Other: Jugoslawo - Russinisch | Church Slavic | Russenorsk † | Slawenoserbisch † | Slovianski | Slovio | Proto-Slavic †

Extinct †

  • Russian Language
  • Dead language
  • Veliky Novgorod