The weight lifting is a difficult athletic sport in which a barbell is made by tearing or becoming part of the high-range, ie with outstretched arms is caulked over the head.
In addition to art, in particular speed, strength, coordination and flexibility are essential for success in weight lifting. Although the Olympic weightlifting is classified as a fringe sport, you will find the exercises in many high performance athletes, including sprinters and Kugelstoßern, because of their speed-strength aspects in the training program.
- 2.1 competition course
- 2.2 tear
- 2.3 thrusting
- 4.1 After weight classes
- 4.2 points relative
- 4.3 Sinclair points
- 4.4 After Sinclair - Malone - Meltzer
- 5.1 Development of the weight classes
- 5.2 Men
- 5.3 Women
- 7.1 Platform and dumbbell
- 7.2 Clothing and footwear
The weight lifting as a sport originated in the late 19th century. From 1880 created clubs for heavy events in different cities, then in 1891 the German Athletics Sports Association ( DASV ) was founded.
Since 1891 World Championships will take place - then with seven participants from six nations. Since 1896, the weight lifting - with interruptions - part of the Olympics. 1896 and 1904 were the one and the beidarmige thrusting in the program, but without any weight class division. 1920 completed the one-armed tearing the two exercises into a three-way battle, which was fought within five weight classes. At the Olympic Games in 1924 this was replaced by a pentathlon, consisting of beidarmigen Press, Snatch and jerk and snatch armed and crashing.
From 1928 the armed disciplines were dropped and by 1972 a three-way battle was discharged from beidarmigen Press, Snatch and Jerk, at national championships, the one-armed disciplines and the pentathlon but lasted longer.
2000 Sydney women's weightlifting was first included in the Olympic program since 1987, there are world championships for women.
One-arm snatch and jerk
The one-arm snatch and the single-arm thrusting same roles as their counterparts beidarmigen. When one-arm snatch the barbell must be done in one motion over the head, the one-armed bumping it must be placed on the shoulder, then to be placed in a second movement to the high route.
Press and Powerlifting
From 1928 up to and including the 1972 Olympic Games, athletes were in the so-called three-way battle against each other. This included not only the usual disciplines today tearing and piercing needs to press. Here, the lifter had to put the weight first and then bring the leg without insert for high-range. The judges decisions regarding pressed through knee but were often disputed.
In addition, the developed originally as a pure test of shoulder and arm muscles imaginary pressing more and more into a " spin ". Similar to the abutment of the athlete tried to speed up the weight, but in this case by the rapid Sit back and re- erection of the upper body, only to fall right back into reserve. By so different angle that allowed for a greater use of the chest muscles, more weight could be overcome.
The records in the press thus approaching more and more to those in bumping into things, which made one of the two disciplines unnecessary. Even the sometimes very extreme reserve the athletes when pressing seemed to represent a health risk, which eventually led to the abolition of pressing in the interaction with the heavy decidability of the rule conformity.
Competitions are currently conducted as a duel between the two disciplines cracking and crashing. Both the individual disciplines as well as the duel be evaluated for the two individual results are added. At Olympic Games individual disciplines are not counted.
After weighing - in major international competitions over ten grams exactly - must specify the loads to which they want to enter the two disciplines in the competition the athletes. In each of the two exercises the lifter are three trials.
The competition starts with the tearing, wherein the lifter begins with the lowest reported weight. He stands within one minute a test available to bring the weight of rule- compliant for high-range. The test shall be started once the bar passes the knees. The athlete is observed here of three judges that will decide by majority vote on the validity of the experiment. However, these judges decision can be overruled in hindsight from a multi-member jury.
If the lifter successfully overcome the load, the weight is automatically increased to the minimum increase of two kilograms for the next experiment, as long as the athlete does not require higher weight load. If the problem persists, however, have been given invalid, the lifter has the possibility to repeat his experiment or increase. This may be more useful for tactical reasons often. Due to the fact that the order of the siphon is dependent on their reported expense, an athlete may be required to complete two tests one after the other, no one should have a weight between its two have reported. In this case it stand rather than the usual one minutes two available to tackle his next attempt. Do all Heber tearing completed, followed by a short pause, thrusting, which proceeds according to the same scheme.
The barbell is placed horizontally in front of the legs of the jack. You will be taken with the palms down and placed in a single movement from floor to high-range with outstretched arms and upright, with either a lunge or squat on both legs ( squat ). The weight must be in a non-stop movement along the body upwards. During the trial, may touch the ground except the feet no other body part.
The weight lifted must be fixed feet on the same line and your arms extended to the character of the Judge for losing the weight motionless in the final position with legs straight. The turning of the wrists must not occur until after the barbell is above the head height of lift. A lifter can remain in failure or in a squatting position as they see fit. The judge signs for parking of the barbell must be made as soon as the body of the lifter is motionless.
The piercing is called the German regulations, according to the English designation clean and jerk officially as " clean and jerk ". It consists of two sub- processes, the conversion of the barbell on the shoulders and the ejection of the dumbbell over your head, which is its essential difference from tearing.
Before ejecting the barbell at rest must be " anwippen " makes the test invalid. Likewise, the ejection in a single movement to the arms' must be done, " press down " makes the attempt also invalid.
The record of a particular weight class has, who was the first lifted the greatest weight. Cancels later a lighter lifter same weight class, the record weight, he will not the record holder, although he would have won in a competition because of its lower body weight. Records need to be confirmed by the association concerned.
After weight classes
In individual championships, like the World Championships or Olympic Games, the athletes are divided into weight classes.
You win if you overcome the greatest burden within a weight class and will be counted here in any discipline only the heaviest successful attempt. Each case the best attempt is counted for each individual event for the moment. If all three attempts in a discipline invalid, the athlete can not introduce duel championship. If several athletes have raised the same maximum load, wins the lighter athlete.
At Olympic Games placements are performed only for the duel championship.
After relative points
As in the minor leagues and competitions all smaller weight classes can not always be adequately staffed, compare your athletes of different weight classes and also between men and women was introduced with the " relative point - evaluation". Furthermore, through this rating allows team competitions. To this end, receives each lifter, depending on gender and body weight, a specific " relative deduction " which is withdrawn after the competition of the delivered elements, then the points are added.
The relative rating is not set internationally uniform, the above -mentioned conditions are valid for Germany.
According to Sinclair points
A variation of the relative rating was developed by Canadian Roy Sinclair and allows a comparison of the body weights of time - separately for men and women. To this end, the IMF published the so-called " Sinclair coefficients " that are determined in the spring of each Olympic year by statistical analysis taking into account the world records in the various weight classes with six digits after the decimal point; they then apply to the following four calendar years. [A 1]
In contrast to the relative ranking, the Sinclair score results in principle always positive point numbers. Thus it is more motivating for low-power lifter.
(90 kg * 1.224433 ) (110 kg * 1.224433 ) = 244.89 Sinclair points ( rounded to two decimal places).
Published by the IMF, 2005-2008 Sinclair applicable coefficients of the men begin with the coefficient 2.747263 for 32.0 kg of body weight and end with 1.000000 167.9 kg; for women are the corresponding values : 2.827345 28.0 1.000000 kg or from 107.8 kg; published by the BVDG values reach only to 1.001438 at 157.9 kilograms of men and to 1.005363 for 97.9 kg for women. For 2009-2012, the values change as follows: 2.656480 1.000000 for 32.0 kg to 173.8 kg at for men, 2.806797 1.000000 28.0 kg to 125.4 kg in at the women; the weight range has been so greatly expanded with the women.
After Sinclair - Malone - Meltzer
An extension of the Sinclair rating also takes into account the age dependence of the performance. Up to 30 years of age there is no compensation, for 31 years the revenue starts with the coefficient 1.014 and ends with 3,571 for 90 years - the same for women and men. Today's standard coefficients are due to Malone and the U.S. physicist David Meltzer. [A 2] The table refers in terms of age on the current calendar year. Thus, if a weightlifter in the relevant calendar year 45 years old, he is treated like a exactly 45 years both before and after the actual birthday.
(90 kg * 1.224433 * 1.136) (110 kg * 1.224433 * 1.136 ) = 278.19 points ( rounded to two decimal places).
The weigh-in takes place mostly an hour or two before the competition with calibrated scales. Currently (as of December 2008) are the following weight classes in weightlifting:
Development of weight classes
The weight classes of men were changed repeatedly over the history of weight lifting and restructured. Finally, the weight classes were changed in 1998 with a view to the forthcoming Olympic Games in Sydney in order to allow it time to take the women's weightlifting with in the program. [A 3]
The changes in the classes were made mostly of the year. Exceptions are the first launch on 12 June 1905 and the changeover in 1913., 1977, the designation of the weight classes officially abandoned. Since the naming is however still used often, here are the classes were mapped to their corresponding names.
The recognition of women's weightlifting by the IMF on 20 October 1983.
In addition, age classes allow a better comparison of the lifters of different ages.
- Youth: 13 to 17 years of age ( with their own weight classes);
- Junior: up to and including 20 years;
- The elderly;
- Master: from 35 years.
In Germany, there is still a division of the junior class in D to A- Youth, and nine master classes for men and for women.
Platform and dumbbell
The experiments are performed on a 4 x 4 meter platform. When leaving the platform during the test of this is invalid.
The bar itself weighs 20 kg at the men, has a length of 2.20 m and diameter of 28 mm, while the distance of the ball-bearing disc recordings is 1.31 m. Women's weight, however, weighs 15 kg and has a total length of 2.01 m and 25 mm diameter. For children and teenagers there are other weights.
The masses of the weight plates are:
- Red: large 25 kg small 2.5 kg;
- Blue: large 20 kg small 2 kg;
- Yellow: large 15 kg, small 1.5 kg;
- Green: tall 10 kg, small 1 kg;
- White: large 5 kg, 0.5 kg small.
The two locks to fix the weight plates each weighing 2.5 kg.
The rules about weight tolerances indicate that items up to and including 5 kg Nominal weight up to 10 g heavier, but should not be easier; the heavier parts can be up to 0.05 % lighter and up to 0.1% heavier.
The large weight plates have 45 cm in diameter and consist of an inner disc of metal which is coated with a rubber ring.
For better holding the dumbbell should, like climbing, magnesium carbonate.
Clothing and footwear
Wearing a collarless shirts weightlifter, according to which the wrestler is required. Furthermore, wearing weightlifting specially made shoes with a hard sole and a slightly elevated heel. To prevent the slippage of the shoes on the platform, of rosin is often applied to the sole. The hard sole prevents that power is lost by the compression of the sole, and the increased heel allows for a more stable and deeper squat.
The use of some lifters knee or elbow bandages offer no support, but to keep the hot joint structures are for reference only. In contrast, the fixed wrist wraps support the sensitive joints, have to fix that high loads. The weight lifting belt is intended to increase the intra-abdominal pressure, thereby to obtain more stability in the torso area. The use of bandages and belts is not compulsory, many lifters use belts only in bumping. Of the associations specific regulations for bandages and belt are fixed, so a belt may be for example a maximum of 120 mm wide, and the bandages should not touch the jersey.
World Association of weight raiser is the International Weightlifting Federation (IWF ), which was founded in 1905 and is based in Budapest. She is responsible for overseeing all international competitions.
To control the continental championships, such as the European or the Asian Championship, exist, one level below the IMF, five continental associations of Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania. This in turn organize a total of 184 national associations.
For the weight lifting in Germany the Federal Association of German weightlifter ( BVDG ) is responsible.
In 1890, the Austrian Weightlifting Federation ( ÖGV ) emerged at that time under the name "Austrian athletes covenant." It has its seat in Vienna and is divided into three regional associations.
In Switzerland, the interests of the weight lifters are organized by the 1946 " Swiss Amateur Weightlifting Association " represented ( SAGV ), which was recognized in 1950 by the IMF.
The weight lifting has the reputation of being particularly affected by doping. Especially in the 1970s and 1980s, athletes were repeatedly denied in retrospect Medals due to positive doping tests or manipulated. Alone at the Olympic Summer Games 1988 medalists doping some athletes were transferred, so that in the heavier classes no longer competed. The IMF encountered the problem of world records probably achieved under doping with a change of weight classes in 1993 and thus deletion of all existing records.
The International Federation sanctioned doping offense with multi-year competition suspensions and lifelong locks for repeat offenders. However locks are always converted to fines, as for example in the run-up to the 2008 Summer Olympic Games was the case in Beijing. After eleven Bulgarian athletes have tested positive [A 4], the IMF locked out the entire Bulgarian team, but then changed the lock in a fine order, which is possible according to the regulations. Bulgaria still did not send athletes to Beijing.
- Vasily Alexeyev ( Soviet Union Soviet Union / Russia Russia)
- Romela Begaj (Albania Albania)
- Gerd Bonk ( Germany Germany )
- Oliver Caruso ( Germany Germany )
- Chen Wei -Ling (Chinese Taipei Chinese Taipei )
- Chen Xiexia ( People's Republic of China People's Republic of China)
- Liu Chunhong ( People's Republic of China People's Republic of China)
- Meline Dalusjan (Armenia Armenia)
- Pyrros Dimas ( Greece )
- Natalija Davydova ( Ukraine )
- Alexandra Escobar (Ecuador Ecuador)
- Christine Girard ( Canada Canada )
- Marija Grabowezkaja ( Kazakhstan )
- Wendy Hale (Solomon Islands Solomon Islands)
- Jürgen Heuser ( Germany Germany )
- Marc Huster ( Germany Germany )
- Hyon Suk Pak ( North Korea North Korea)
- Peter Immesberger ( Germany Germany )
- Prapawadee Jaroenrattanatarakoon ( Thailand )
- Acacius Kachiasvilis ( Greece )
- Marzena Karpińska (Poland Poland)
- Ruth Kasirye ( Norway)
- Tatjana Yuryevna Kaschirina (Russia Russia)
- Aleksandra Klejnowska (Poland Poland)
- Olha Korobka ( Ukraine )
- Alexander Kurlovich ( USSR USSR / Belarus Belarus )
- Cao Lei ( People's Republic of China People's Republic of China)
- Lu Ying- Chi (Chinese Taipei Chinese Taipei )
- Yudelquis Maridalin ( Dominican Republic )
- Jang Mi- ran ( South Korea South Korea)
- Rudolf Mang ( Germany Germany )
- Karyn S. Marshall (United States United States)
- Rolf Milsner ( Germany Germany )
- Karla Moreno (Nicaragua Nicaragua)
- Halil Mutlu ( Turkey Turkey)
- Manfred Nerlinger ( Germany Germany )
- Nastassja Nowikawa ( Belarus Belarus )
- Ele Opeloge (Samoa Samoa)
- Svetlana Nikolaevna Podobedowa ( Kazakhstan )
- Hossein Rezazadeh (Iran Iran)
- Karl -Heinz Radschinsky ( Germany Germany )
- Monique Riesterer ( Germany Germany )
- Julia Rohde ( Germany Germany )
- Natalya Alexandrovna Sabolotnaja (Russia Russia)
- Marina Vladimirovna Schainowa (Russia Russia)
- Svetlana Valerevna Schimkowa (Russia Russia)
- Sibel Simsek ( Turkey Turkey)
- Matthias Steiner ( Germany Germany )
- Ingo Steinhofel ( Germany Germany )
- Naim Süleymanoğlu ( Bulgaria / Turkey Turkey)
- Nurcan Taylan ( Turkey Turkey)
- Pawina Thongsuk ( Thailand )
- Dika Toua (Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea)
- Christian Ulrich ( Germany Germany )
- Mariam Usman (Nigeria Nigeria)
- Jurik Vardanyan ( USSR USSR / Armenia Armenia)
- Ronny Weller ( Germany Germany )
- Martin Zawieja ( Germany Germany )