Opportunistic infection

Under opportunistic pathogens is understood bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites that make a primary disease and the resulting weakened constitution of the body (especially the immune system) advantage and thus cause an opportunistic infection. So take the opportunity (Latin opportunitas ) to proliferate during the immunodeficiency of the patient. Examples:

  • Pneumocystis pneumonia ( PCP): a special form of pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii the fungus (formerly erroneously P. carinii assigned ), which occurs primarily in AIDS and led to the discovery of this immunodeficiency disease has
  • Legionnaires' disease ( Legionella pneumonia): affected by Legionella pneumophila -induced lung inflammation, mainly the elderly and immunocompromised people.
  • Toxoplasmosis: caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, affected are immunocompromised, such as HIV infection.
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a severe brain infection caused by the JC virus, such as HIV infection or immunosuppressive therapy or with monoclonal antibodies such as efalizumab, natalizumab or rituximab
  • Tuberculosis: often occurs in immunocompromised patients, especially AIDS patients and organ transplant recipients develop open infections that are not limited to the lungs, while a majority of the infections of immunocompetent persons only leads to a latent infection
  • Candidiasis: Candida albicans by induced, mostly endogenous infection
  • Aspergillosis: mostly by Aspergillus fumigatus -induced exogenous infection
  • CMV infection: may, inter alia, lead to colitis, esophagitis, retinitis, pneumonia, transplant rejection, and encephalitis
  • HSV infections: can, inter alia, lead to pneumonia, encephalitis and sepsis