Oral microbiology

As the entirety of the oral flora microorganisms is referred to colonize the oral cavity of animals. Since the term is mainly used in human medicine, it is usually limited to the oral flora of man.

The ( obsolete ) name " Flora" is based on the previously often held view, bacteria and many other microorganisms belonging to the plant kingdom, as occurring in a given area plants are called " flora " means the area. Today we speak of " microbial communities " or " micro societies" and no longer " microflora ".

Under physiological conditions, the oral flora of hundreds of species of bacteria and yeasts is populated. These oral flora has for the most part a protective function against pathogens that may colonize in the oral cavity.

Among the pathogenic bacteria of the oral flora Streptococcus mutans has a special importance as one of the dental caries trigger. The settlement focuses mainly on the bacterial plaque and is transmitted to the child after the birth of the mother. Recent research attempting to selectively displace Streptococcus mutans from the oral flora.

Infectious fungal organisms ( yeast / candida, dermatophytes, molds) come in healthy only in the form of superficial skin and mucous settlements before (see mycosis ). Certain Candida species also live in the jaws of most people as harmless saprophytes; it has been detected in approximately 70% of healthy volunteers. These skin and mucous settlements are subsumed under the collective name candidosis.

Bite injuries

While before the introduction of mass vaccination or rabies and tetanus were the most feared complications in bite injuries, now plays the risk of infection by microorganisms of the normal oral flora the greater role. This is given for bites by dogs, cats, monkeys and humans. Especially deep and periarticular injuries frequently lead to an infection. The infection rate for all medically supplied bite injuries with about 15 - 20 percent stated. The risk of infection is highest in humans bite and is about 50 percent. There is a work (Goldstein EJC: . Management of human and animal bite wounds Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 1989, 21: 1275-1279 ) quoted to the effect that, so before antibiotics were in the second half of the 1930s available required at a primary care physician within one hour 10 per cent of the cases of human bite injuries amputations, whereas at a later supply the amputation rate increased to up to 33 percent. However, here the most (hand) injuries are probably not caused by the bite, but the result of a fist blow in the face and the teeth of the other people.