The juke is one of the mechanical musical instruments. It can be a full orchestra imitate and came out of the produced on a large scale since the mid-18th century music box. The Konzertorchestrion was designed for the game in the salons of high society and the halls of large hotels and played music like Beethoven 's symphonies, opera overtures, but also marches and dance music.

The developed about the same time from the barrel organ streets or fair organ imitated a marching band or a dance band and was to be found at fairs, at folk festivals and dance halls. Georg Joseph Vogler made ​​in 1796 by master organ builder Hr. Servant of Tübingen build a portable organ, which was presented as a juke box in Stockholm, later in 1801 in Prague and other European cities. 1805 completed Mälzel Johann Nepomuk ( 1772-1838 ) the Panharmonikon, he built resounding tongues in this unit, for Ludwig van Beethoven in 1813 the second part of " Wellington's Victory or the Battle of Vitoria " (op. 91), composed. Vogler and Mälzel were common in the years 1801-1805 in Vienna and in 1806 and 1807 both came with your new achievements in Paris. Vogler explained and showed all the new features. After the death of Wolfgang von Kempelen in 1804 Johann Nepomuk Mälzel came into the possession of the Chess Turk. With this and his music machine he went on tour. In 1825 he traveled to the USA and thus caused a sensation, he was possibly also in 1811 in the U.S., a Panharmonikon was presented in New York, Boston and other cities in 1811 and 1812. Johann Friedrich Kaufmann in 1812, Dresden has rebuilt the Panharmonikon, businessman himself writes that he was at the same time as Mälzel and Vogler 1806 in Paris, also had this good personal contacts with Vogler. A Mechanical trumpeter from his hand is in the German Museum in Munich

Orchestrions were also built since 1820 by the game watchmaker Carl Blessing in Unterkirnach in the Black Forest. From the Family Blessing went to a consequence, the basic impetus for the Black Forest Orchestrion construction of: the Blessing orchestrions were distributed in the following decades to Russia.

The use of the term juke and the invention of the automatic musical instrument was attributed to a London newspaper in 1851 the Dresden Friedrich Theodor Kaufmann and son of Johann Friedrich Kaufmann ..

From 1845-1848, built the SIEDLE game watchmaker Michael Welte, a student Blessings, a musical work for a buyer in Odessa, which should mimic all the orchestral parts.

Centers of production for the Konzertorchestrien were in Germany Freiburg im Breisgau, Vohrenbach in the Black Forest and Leipzig, for carnival, road and street organs Waldkirch im Breisgau.

Became famous in 1862, issued by Michael Welte at the World Exhibition in London instrument, which the press was given the designation juke and whose image has been used in numerous reference books as an example for the entire class of instruments.

In 1883, Emil Welte patented a process which by punched paper tape to control the Welte - orchestrions - the so-called piano roll - controlled and replaced the pin roll within a few years. Two other patents from 1889 (DRP 48 741 and 58 252 ) improved the process significantly. From then on, Welte turned the entire production on the central role to which patents were registered in Germany for M. Welte & Söhne.

1905 or 1906 presented the Mills Novelty Company in Chicago, USA, the first juke ago with an integrated violin. This instrument, the Automatic Virtuosa, had a built- lying violin, the strings were removed by four rotating celluloid disks in the upper part. From 1909 there was an improved model, the Violano - Virtuoso. This was prepared in various forms until about 1930.

In addition to the Mills Novelty Company succeeded only the Ludwig Hupfeld AG in Leipzig to build a juke box with violin. On the local Fall Fair 1908 they presented the prototype of a violin playing orchestrions the Hupfeld Phonoliszt - Violina. This was a paired with a reproduction of piano type Hupfeld - Phonoliszt Violin Orchestrion. It played a round arch five vertically in the upper part of the instrument completely mounted violins, accompanied by the piano. In series production, then only three violins were installed. The Phonoliszt - Violina was built from 1909 to 1930.

Technical Development

Initially orchestrions were driven with weight drive or crank, occasionally with a steam engine, gas engine or water motor. Later, they were usually equipped with an electric motor. The music was initially occasionally transmitted with a pin roller made ​​of wood, later with piano roll by perforated plates or cardboard strips on the instrument. The introduction of new technologies such as radio and the electric record player around 1926, the sale of fairground broke a world. By now cheaper and easier " electrical " recording of sound through the carbon microphone and playback by amplifier via high-volume speaker to elaborate fairground and the gramophones were no longer competitive. Within a short time their production was discontinued worldwide.