The Oriental (also Oriental Studies (s) ) is a scientific discipline that deals with the study of languages as well as the spiritual and material culture of the Orient in its original, the entire Asia and adjacent areas comprehensive, meaning busy.
As an academic discipline, the Oriental 1795 with the establishment of the École Spéciale des langues orientales in Paris founded. Here Silvestre de Sacy taught (1758-1838), who significantly influenced the development of Oriental Studies. 1845 was founded in Germany, the German Oriental Society, which to this day the study of Asia, Africa and Oceania dedicated. During the 19th century next to the text-critical research increasingly Euro -centric concepts such as the " mystery of the Orient" (eg through translations of Antoine Galland's translation of 1001 ), or have been taken over " backwardness of Islam " from the European colonialism, see this also Orientalism.
The Institute of Oriental Studies in Vienna, opened in 1886. Currently an undergraduate and four further courses of study are offered at this institution. These are Oriental Studies (Bachelor of Arts), Ancient Near Eastern Philology and Oriental Archaeology (MA), Arabic (MA), Islamic Studies (MA ) and Turkish Studies / Ottoman Studies (MA). All three fields of study include within the humanities and cultural studies to the subjects of philology and Kulturhistorik.
Disciplines of Oriental Studies, which extend partially over it, for example, Assyriology, the Iranian, the Turkish Studies, the Ottoman, the Semitic and the Arabic, but also the Islamic Studies. In a broader sense, Egyptology and African Studies are expected to do so.
A Japanese counterpart had the Oriental with Rangaku.