Eyebright ( Euphrasia rostkoviana )
The broomrape family ( Orobanchaceae ) form a family of plants in the order of Lippenblütlerartigen ( Lamiales ).
They usually grow as a perennial herbaceous plants, rarely as shrubs. It is mostly hemiparasitische plants; several lineages in the family have developed independently holoparasites (eg Epifagus, Orobanche ). The leaves are often toothed to deeply lobed. They usually racemose inflorescences. The petals are fused into a tube. Per flower, there are four stamens. Are formed capsule fruits.
Broomrapes are distributed almost worldwide, but they are usually in areas with temperate climates to be found. With the proliferation of genres to focus on let the northern hemisphere or find in the Old World. About 3 /5 of the genera are endemic to the northern hemisphere, eleven genera are found in both hemispheres. The largest with more than 350 species genus of the family, the lice herbs ( Pedicularis ), has its main range in the Himalayas; Castilleja with more than 200 species is found mainly in western North America; the approximately 150 species of summer Wurzen ( Orobanche ) have their main range in the Mediterranean region. The approximately 170 species of species of the eyes consolation ( Euphrasia ) shows an unusual distribution: It occurs both in the southern hemisphere as well as in the Old World to the northern hemisphere. Also, almost all of the approximately 100 species of Buchnera are found in the tropical and temperate regions of the Old World. Many of the remaining genera of the family consist of only a few species and are known only by limited resources.
The Orobanchaceae family was erected in 1799 by Etienne Pierre Ventenat in Tableau du Vegetal Regne 2, page 292, under the name " Orobanchoideae ". Type genus Orobanche L. is synonyms for Orobanchaceae Vent. nom. cons. are: Aeginetiaceae Livera, Cyclocheilaceae Marais, Melampyraceae Rich. ex Hook. & Lindl., Nesogenaceae Marais, Pedicularidaceae Juss., Phelypaeaceae Horan. , Rhinanthaceae Vent., Scrophulariaceae tribe Buchnereae, Scrophulariaceae Rhinantheae. The broomrape family ( Orobanchaceae ) family belongs to the order Lippenblütlerartigen ( Lamiales ).
Depending on the author between 80 and about 100 genera with 1700-2100 species of the family Orobanchaceae be expected.
The Orobanchaceae family is divided into several tribes. For some authors, there is the tribe Pedicularideae Duby with several subtribe example Castillejinae; in the presentation here they have the rank of tribe, so the tribe Pedicularideae here is divided into several tribes:
- Tribus Buchnereae Benth. It contains about 19 genera: Bardotia Eb.Fisch. , Shepherd. & Kai garbage. It was erected in 2012 and contains only one type: Bardotia ankaranensis Eb.Fisch. , Shepherd. & Kai garbage. Thrives on limestone in the " Tsingy " said Karst only in northern Madagascar.
- Baumia angolensis Engl & Gilg: It occurs only in Angola.
- Ghikaea speciosa ( Rendle ) Diels: It occurs in Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya.
- Hiernia angolensis S.Moore: It occurs only in Angola and Namibia.
- Parastriga alectroides Mildbr. It is widespread in tropical Central and East Africa.
- Pseudostriga Cambodiana Bonati: It is common in Southeast Asia.
- Andreas Sievers madagascarianus Eb.Fisch. It occurs only in Madagascar.
- Tetraspidium laxiflorum Baker: It occurs only in Madagascar.
- Tribus Buttonieae ( uncertain): It contains about five genera: Buttonia mosquitoes ex Benth. , The only two to three species are widespread in Africa.
- Leucosalpa Scott -Elliot: The approximately three species are found only in Madagascar.
- Radamaea Benth. The five species are found only in Madagascar.
- Rhaphispermum Benth. Contains only one type: Rhaphispermum gerardioides Benth. It occurs only in Madagascar.
- Tribus Castillejeae G.Don: There are about seven genera with about 220 species contain: Castilleja Mutis ex L. f: The more than 200 species are distributed mainly in the New World.
- Clevelandia Greene: It contains only one type: Clevelandia bildingii (Greene) Greene: It occurs only in California.
- Gentrya racemosa Breedlove & Heckard: It comes only in the Sierra Surutato ago in the Mexican state of Sinaloa.
- Ophiocephalus angustifolius Wiggins: It is endemic in Lower California.
- Tribus Cymbarieae D.Don: it contains five to six genera with about 14 species: Bungea CAMey. , The only two species are common in Asia.
- Cymbaria L.: The approximately four species are common in Russia and China.
- Lesquereuxia Boiss. (sometimes in Siphonostegia Benth. ): it contains only one type: Lesquereuxia syriaca Boiss. & Reut. It is distributed in the eastern Mediterranean.
- Schwalbea americana L.: It is distributed in eastern North America.
- Tribus Escobedieae Benth. Contains approximately eight genera: Alectra Thunb. Spread The (30 to ) about 40 species in tropical Africa and Asia.
- Escobedia Ruiz & Pav: 8 to 15 species are widespread in the Neotropics.
- Magdalenaea Brade: it contains only one type: Magdalenaea limae Brade: It is distributed in southeastern Brazil.
- Nothochilus coccineus Radlk. It is distributed in Brazil.
- Pseudomelasma pedicularioides ( Baker) Eb.Fisch. It occurs only in the central Madagascar.
- Tribus Gerardieae Benth. Contains approximately twelve genera: Agalinis Raf. Die ( 40 to 70 ), about 45 species are widespread in the New World.
- Anisanthera Pennell ex Britton: it contains only one type: Anisantherina hispidula ( Mart. ) Pennell: It is distributed from Mexico through Central America to Brazil and occurs in Cuba.
- Brachystigma wrightii ( A. Gray ) Pennell: It is spread from Arizona to Mexico.
- Macranthera flammea ( W.Bartram ) Pennell: It is distributed in the southeastern United States.
- Seymeriopsis little fruit Tzvelev: It occurs only in Cuba.
- Tribus Micrargerieae ( uncertain): It contains about four genera: Gerardiina Engl: it contains only one or two kinds: Gerardiina angolensis Engl: It is widespread in tropical and southern Africa.
- Gerardiina kundelungensis Mielcarek
- Leptorhabdos parviflora ( Benth. ) Benth. It occurs in Central Asia, Southwest Asia and northwestern China.
- Micrargeriella aphylla REFr. It is native to Republic of Congo and Zaire.
- Tribus Orobancheae Lam. &. DC:. It includes 14 to 15 genera: Aeginetia L.: The three to six species are common in East Asia from Sri Lanka, India, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand, China, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines to Japan.
- Boschniakia C.A.Mey. ex bong. ( Syn: Xylanche Beck, Beck Kopsiopsis ): The only two or three species in northern Russia, from northern India through China ( two species) and Korea to Japan and northwestern North America spread.
- Christ Sonia Gardner: The 16 to 23 species are distributed in tropical Asia.
- Cistanche Hoffmann. & Link: The 20 to 26 species are common in the Mediterranean and from Ethiopia to India and China.
- Diphelypaea (L.) Nicolson (syn.: .. . Phelipea pers, Phelypaea L., Phelypaea Tournef non Phelypaea Thunb nec Phaelypea Browne, Anoplanthus sect Euanoplon ( Endl. ) Walpers, Anoplanthus sect Anblatum ( Hill ) Endl, Anoplanthus. .. Nyman, Anoplanthus sect Macranoplon Reuter, Anoplon Rchb, Orobanche sect Anoplon Wallroth nom invalid, Lathraea L., Lathraea sect Phylipea Scapoli, Alatraea Necker nom illeg, Amblatum G.Don ): .. .. .. .. , the only three species are spread in Southwest Asia.
- Epifagus Nutt. Contains only one type: Epifagus virginiana (L.) Barton: It is widespread in North America.
- Necranthus orobanchoides Gilli: It occurs in Turkey.
- Phacellanthus Siebold & Zucc tubiflorus. ( Syn: Phacellanthus continentalis Kom, Tienmuia triandra Hu): It is distributed in Russia's Far East, Japan, Korea and the Chinese provinces of Gansu, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shanxi and Zhejiang. Their host plants are Fraxinus species.
- Platypholis boninsimae Maxim. It is native to Japan.
- Bartsia L.: The 49 to 54 species in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere and the mountains of the tropics spread.
- Bartsiella Bolliger: it contains only one type: Bartsiella rameauana ( Emb ) Bolliger: It thrives only in the High and Middle Atlas Mountains in Morocco.
- The new way Bornmuellerantha alshehbaziana Dönmez & Mutlu, occurs only in the Turkish province Antalyace.
- The other type, Bornmuellerantha aucheri ( Boiss. ) Rothm, in Armenia, in the northern and north-western Iran, in northwestern Syria, Lebanon and the southern, central and eastern Turkey before.
- Eremitilla mexicana Yatsk. & J.L.Contr.
- Hedbergia abyssinica ( Benth. ) Molau: It is widespread in tropical Africa.
- Omphalotrix longipes Maxim. It is in the north-eastern Asia (China, Korea, Russia Far East ) spread.
- Odontitella virgata (Link) Rothm. It occurs only in the center and southwest of the Iberian Peninsula.
- Alps throat ( Tozzia alpina L.): It occurs in the Alps and the Carpathians.
- Tribus Xylocalyceae ( uncertain): it contains only one genus: Xylocalyx Balf. f: Of the five species occur only three in Somalia and two only on Socotra.
- Incertae sedis: The following list contains not yet been placed in the tribe genera: Ancistrostylis T.Yamaz. Contains only one type: Ancistrostylis harmandii ( Bonati ) T.Yamaz. It occurs only in Laos.
- Pseudobartsia yunnanensis DYHong: This endemic species thrives in forests at altitudes of about 2300 meters in only Songming Xian in the Chinese province of Yunnan.
- Spirostegia bucharica ( B.Fedtsch. ) Ivanina: It is distributed in Central Asia.
- Tienmuia triandra Hu ( Syn: Phacellanthus Siebold & Zucc tubiflorus. ): It is distributed in Russia's Far East, Japan, Korea and the Chinese provinces of Gansu, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shanxi and Zhejiang.
- The Orobanchaceae family in APWebsite. ( Section systematics)
- The Parasitic Plant Connection: Orobanchaceae.