Palace of Nestor
Palace of Nestor - in addition to Pylos - the established name for the remains of a large Mycenean palace and administrative center of the Late Helladic period, around 12 km north of the modern town of Pylos, in the municipality of Nestor. Finds of the excavations are in the Archaeological Museum in Chora, the main town in the township.
The Mycenaean settlement, which was discovered by Carl Blegen in 1939 and excavated in 1952, is located near the present Ano Englianos about 9 km northeast of the Bay of Navarino. Blegen came here on the dirt palace of a Mycenaean wanax, a king. The last of these kings was probably Enkheljawon. Blegen was the extensive Mycenaean palace ruins the name " Palace of Nestor ", named after the ruler of the " sandy Pylos " in Homer's Iliad. It is disputed whether this palace is actually the same Palace, Homer describes. Although found by Blegen Linear B tablets clearly show that the place was called by its inhabitants Pulos ( 𐀢 𐀫 pu - ro) and the capital of an important Mycenaean State was that included large parts of the landscape of Messinia. The topographic data in the Iliad and the Odyssey over the seat Nestor fit better to an early and mittelmykenischen settlement near the present-day Kakovatos in Triphylia ( north of Messenia then ). Here Wilhelm Dörpfeld has been discovered at the beginning of the 20th century remains of some buildings and three large domed tombs from the 15th century BC and the closely situated settlement for the Homeric Palace of Nestor held .. However, the settlement at Kakovatos was as recent excavations were destroyed in the second half of the 15th century by fire, may therefore be time- hardly the seat of Nestor described in Homer. Also, it is too far to the north. Possibly, this region was around 1200 BC, but still the power range of the ruler of Pylos at Ano Englianos.
The site was inhabited from the Mittelhelladikum. From early and Mittelmykenischer time (16th - 15th century BC) were found at the northeast end of the hill traces of a surrounding wall and a fortified gate. Otherwise, remains of buildings before the mid-14th century BC not obtained because of the hills for the construction of the palace was leveled. The palace was built during the phase LH III A (ca. 1370 to 1340 /20). At several points below the hill tracks of a lower town were discovered. At the beginning of the 12th century BC, the Palace of Nestor was destroyed by fire and the site no longer re-populated continuously. What triggered the sudden downfall, is still unclear. The Linear B texts from palace archives, which date from the last months before the destruction, give no clear indication. The analysis of texts has shown that the destruction most likely took place in the spring. After the 8th century BC the settlement was completely abandoned and forgotten.
On the Linear B tablets from Pylos the counties mentioned. The kingdom was accordingly of two provinces ( Deweroaikoraja in the west to the east to Pylos and Peraikoraja Lefktron ). These provinces consisted of seven or nine districts. It is important that the tablets were written in Greek and acceptance confirmed that even to Mycenaean Greek was spoken. The fire above them were cured and preserved.
Among the main attractions include the large circular Eschara (sacrificial hearth ) with still preserved painting of the mount in the Megaron ( Throne Room ) of the Palace and a real " bathroom " with a " bath " in which Telemachus - Son of Odysseus - according to the legend of Polycaste was bathed and oiled. The former multi-storey facility, is obtained from the still -rise up to one meter above the ground masonry, was roofed to protect the built of rubble stone and rammed earth walls from the weather.
In the immediate vicinity of the palace there are two domed tombs; the stone dome of the better-preserved was rebuilt.
At present, the archaeological site is not accessible to visitors, since extensive restoration work, which have a complete replacement of the roof and better presentation of the excavation to the destination. A re- opening is planned for 2015.