Pasquino is an ancient statue near the Piazza Navona in Rome, be attached to the anonymous since the 15th century to the present satirical verses about the current rulers, their policies and scandals. The Pasquino served especially in times when freedom of expression was suppressed, as an outlet for the discontent of the Romans.
Derived from the term Pasquino lampoon is a satirical poem.
The Pasquino is the most famous and only yet used the so-called talking statues of Rome. When speaking statue were, especially in the time of the nepotism of the Popes and the Marforio, now in the Capitoline Museum, the Babuino at the Spanish Steps, the Abbate Luiggi in the church of Sant'Andrea della Valle, the Facchino, a fountain sculpture opposite the Palazzo Doria - Pamphili, and Madama Lucrezia used at Piazza Venezia.
End of the 15th century, during the excavation for the construction of the Palazzo Orsini (today Palazzo Braschi ) at the point at which even today is still the Pasquino, the torso of a Hellenistic sculpture group, a badly damaged figure with the middle part of a second, found. The builder of the palace, Cardinal Oliviero Carafa, insisted the figure, the arms, legs and nose are missing to get. He finally let in 1501 put up on a pedestal at the corner of his palace, which also contains an inscription next to the coat of arms of the owner, who documented the preparation of the figure by Carafa.
About the original meaning of the sculpture there are different opinions, it probably is part of a group of figures, which belonged to the facilities of ancient Roman stadium of Domitian, on which the present-day Piazza Navona is. Apparently she put Menelaus with Patroclus dar. In the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence, the sign-off of an antique sculpture is obtained which has great similarity with the Pasquino.
The name Pasquino
About the origin of the name Pasquino there are only conjectures and legends. Thus, neighboring craftsman or innkeepers have served as godparents, or even a teacher at a grammar school, which was similar to Pasquino, in the opinion of the students, and was ridiculed by them by satirical verses on the statue. A namesake and also possible is named after the main character Pasquino the seventh amendment of the fourth day of Boccaccio's Decameron, who dies in agony after enjoying a sage leaf. His mistress is subsequently charged with the murder, and after she too died of a sage leaf, one discovers that the shrub had been poisoned by a toad. A healing plant was in this case of fatal effect, as it is the abuse of spiritual power by the Popes, one of the most popular topics of Pasquino.
Pasquino verses are anonymous, written in Italian, in Roman dialect or earlier in Latin. However, obtaining only a few examples, as cited in all Romführern saying Quod non fecerunt barbari fecerunt Barberini ( what the barbarians did not do, the Barberini have done ). This refers to Pope Urban VIII Barberini, who had melted the bronze roof covering the porch of the Pantheon, to get material for the ciborium in St. Peter's Basilica.
Target group of Pasquino verses are the holders of power, that is, from the 16th to the early 19th century, especially the Pope and cardinals, along with the ruling noble families of Rome. The reason for the probably first satires was Pope Alexander VI. , Rodrigo Borgia. In 1501 he had, during his absence, his illegitimate daughter Lucrezia transferred the government of the Papal States. For the Romans, an immense operation. During the election of a pope Hadrian VI. Pietro Aretino used the Pasquino to denounce with his brilliant satirical poems mocking the states at the Curia, with the strategy to influence the election of a pope. Hadrian could be held only with difficulty which to sink the Pasquino in the Tiber.
After a long period of silence, the Romans list at the base of the statue began in 1938 again to staple. The occasion was the visit of Hitler in Rome. Since then Pasquino no longer silent.
Preferred destination Roman ridicule in recent times was the Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi.
After restoration of the sculpture and cleaning of the base year 2009/2010, in which all the layers of paper have been removed, the city administration is trying to prevent the reattachment of satires.