Passive solar building design

Solar architecture, and solar construction, is an architecture and bauplanerische activity, building plans, the use of the natural energy resources of the site particularly in the form of solar energy. The result is called a solar house or solar house.

The concept

Solar construction includes construction activities, the

  • The smallest possible energy demand for heating and cooling energy demand have ( Energy Saving ),
  • The climatic conditions of the building site (air temperature, solar radiation, precipitation ) into account,
  • The energy potential of passive solar radiation share account,
  • And still offer adequate thermal comfort for the residents.

Solar architecture was its own branch of architecture science as well as structural engineering.

Solar architecture is also increasingly becoming a stand-alone style of architecture that is formally consistently in the tradition of classical modernity and its currents and receptions, in the subordination of the design under the appropriateness ( form follows function, the Sculptural remains in the background ) attributable to the functionalism. But younger solar architecture also accepts suggestions of the organic construction. Common form linguistic elements are typically the - latitude - dependent - horizon angle of the sun, which are reflected in the building concept, the pronounced asymmetry with respect to the North-South axis (which sets them apart from the reduction to simple geometric forms of early modernism ), while compactness of the design, which relates to the surfaces (as with all energy-saving construction methods ), with thermal accessories of the building such as conservatories. The pronounced Materialsichtigkeit in terms of solar and thermal cells, interferes with the necessary boardings of insulation or coloring of the walls ( depending on the reflection / absorption ), supplemented by plantings and the like, which deviates from strict concepts such as classic modern or brutalism purely pragmatische Oberflächenausformulierung buildings due. Parallel is found in the solar building a strong regionalization, the usual local conditions - and even construction traditions - reflect.


Solar architecture has two main objectives:

  • The buildings are pleasantly cool and in winter toasty warm in the summer.
  • Through optimization of the solar energy demand for cooling and heating is minimized. Solar architecture is energy efficient.
  • The building is designed so that solar heat gain can be optimized. To this end, the building is oriented towards the sun, on the south side sufficiently large glass areas are planned. Controllable sunscreen ( " shading " ) is essential to fit.
  • We will take steps to prevent heat loss. These include a compact design and a complete thermal insulation with a tight building envelope (avoidance of thermal bridges ). In addition, the use of specific building services such as heat exchangers or controlled ventilation.
  • It generates the energy used largely by means of a solar thermal system. This heats up a solar storage tank; these buffers a certain amount of time between heat production and heat utilization.

The goal is to save energy: because fossil fuels (oil, gas) are scarce and expensive, as well as to slow down climate change. Energy efficient buildings in summer and cozy in winter and tend, with proper construction to less structural damage.

You can achieve different energy standards, such as low-energy house, passive house, zero energy house or plus energy house.

An important element of solar building are first and foremost the orientation, the orientation of a structure of the compass or the sun ( the process of finding the most favorable location of the building on the available site called positioning). Construction requirements are well-insulated walls ( k- values), and in particular windows and doors, which provide a significant Wärmeverlusquelle. The glass technology has reached double glazing has a U- value of 1.1, with triple glazing has a of 0.6-0.7, and also quite passable Uf- values ​​(U - value of the window frame ): insulate window frames made of PVC or aluminum - also driven by the stipulations of the Energy Saving Ordinance - much better than before. Has the tread depth of windows and doors increased significantly (formerly were 50 mm standard, today there are 70 mm; many six- or seven-chamber profiles have 80 or 88 mm depth ). The warm edge contributes by reducing the heat losses to the disc edges to save energy.


One of the first heated only by solar energy houses was built in 1989 by solar pioneer Josef Jenni in Upper Castle in Switzerland.

2007 was the first one hundred percent solar-heated apartment house with Minergie -P standard was completed in Switzerland.

From 1992 to 1996, the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems tested (ISE ) in Freiburg " energy self-sufficient solar house ". This demonstration and research project attempted to consume no electricity or gas. It made the solar architecture, the idea of ​​passive house and the technique of controlled ventilation in German-speaking known. The ISE is with over 1100 employees, the largest solar energy research institute in Europe.


The energy performance certificate informed people who want to buy or rent a property, over the approximate energy costs result of their decision. The higher purchase price and the higher rental income are lower follow-up costs over; this one can weigh.