Pater Patriae (plural Fathers Patriae ), "Father of the Fatherland", Parens Patriae also (literally " parent of the fatherland" ), was a Roman honorary title.
The title of Pater patriae was conferred by the Senate. Marcus Furius Camillus Already Quintus Fabius Maximus and Cunctator were the basis of merit called parentes. Marius and Sulla also received the title of parens or pater whether cives servatos ( " father due to the rescue of citizenship "). The orator and politician Marcus Tullius Cicero was honored for uncovering the conspiracy of Catiline, during his consulship in 63 BC with this title.
The next title holders were Gaius Julius Caesar and Augustus (2 BC), the title of the Senate, the Equites and the Roman people was presented. Since the title Pater Patriae was not essential to the legitimacy of the ruler - unlike the title Imperator, Caesar, Augustus, Pontifex Maximus or the tribunicia potestas - he was not part of the imperial honors; only since the award to Pertinax 192 he scored for fixed imperial titulary. Likewise resulted from the title no legal power, but the ceremony was a sign of dignity as well as a clarification of the duties of the carrier with respect to the citizenry. As the paterfamilias of a family board, also the honored with the protection of the State was responsible. The same goes for the female form. The title of a " mater patriae " is occupied by approaches to Livia, for the first time with Julia Domna.
The Senate granted the title of many Roman emperors, often after many years of supremacy, but sometimes, when the new emperor, the special attention of the Senate enjoyed, such as Nerva. Consequently, many of the short-lived rulers did not carry this item. The award was subject to the approval of the person to be honored, which could also reject the title. So Emperor Tiberius did not confer the honorary title; Nero also struck the first offer in the first year of his reign due to his youth.
Roman Fathers Patriae
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, 63 BC
- Gaius Julius Caesar, 45 BC
- Augustus, 5th February 2 BC
- Caligula, 37
- Claudius, January 42
- Nero, 55
- Vespasian, 70
- Titus, June 79
- Domitian, September 14, 81
- Nerva, September 96
- Trajan, 98
- Hadrian, 128
- Antoninus Pius, 139
- Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, 166
- Commodus, 177
- Septimius Severus, 193
- Caracalla, 199
- Macrinus, June 217
- Elagabalus, July 218
- Gordian III. , May 238
- Probus, in July 276
- Diocletian, November 20, 284
- Maximian, April 1 286
- Constantine the Great, 307
Later Fathers Patriae
- William I, Count of Provence, called the Liberator, who defeated the Saracens at the battle of tour tour.
- Cosimo de ' Medici, lord of Florence
- Andrea Doria, admiral of the Republic of Genoa, received the title of Charles V
- William the Silent, Prince of Orange
- Peter the Great (Russia). After the Peace of Nystad (1721 ), the Czar by the Senate, the honorary title of " Imperator" and " Pater Patriae " were "in the name of the fatherland " plotted.
- George Washington, first President of the United States, was called Pater Patriae.
- Alexander Douala - Bell, King of the Douala people in Cameroon was honored after his death with the title.
- Sam Nujoma, first President of Namibia
- Malietoa Tanumafili II, head of Samoa, was called after his death of Helen Clark as the " Father of Modern Samoa ".
- Mohammed Zahir Shah, the exiled king of Afghanistan, was awarded on the occasion of his return and instead the title of king of the Loya Jirga, the honorary title of " father of the nation ".
- When Stark beer tapping on the Nockherberg the respective Bavarian head of state is addressed as pater patriae since the 18th century.