The farmer (Unicode: ♙ ♟ ) is a token of chess. Each player has eight pawns start of the game, which form a wall in front of the other figures. Because of its limited train and impact possibilities the farmer is considered the weakest stone in chess. In contrast to the other figures, the farmer can not move backward, but only forward. However, the importance of the peasants in the course of a chess game is getting higher, and because of the opportunity to convert on reaching the opponent's home row in a stronger figure. The World Chess Federation FIDE differs in its official chess rules are not between "peasant " and " figure", while the farmer is colloquially often referred to as a figure.
- 3.1 In the opening
- 3.2 In the middle game
- 3.3 In the final
Possible moves and value
- In the starting position, the farmer can either move one step forward, if the target field is empty, or to make a double step, if the field before the farmers and the target field are empty.
- The farmer is not in the starting position ( 2nd or 7th row ), then it can only move one field to the front ( if it does not hit ).
- The farmer beats diagonal: He may move to a square occupied by an opponent's piece diagonally in front of it on an adjacent file, capturing the character. ( See diagram 2 ) The farmer is the only token that beats as the direction of pull in a different direction.
- The pawn can only move forward. He is the only token that can not return to an already awkward box.
A special capturing move of the farmer is the so-called en passant. See Diagram 3: After the black pawn has made from the basic position, a double step c5 and thus actually the endangered field has c6 left behind, the white pawn can refer to c6 and c5 take away the black farmers from the field. The beating by en passant is only possible in the immediately following train.
If the farmer the opponent's home row (consisting of the fields on which are the figures of the enemy in the initial position ) enters, it must be as part of his turn into a queen, rook, bishop or knight of the same color (after the free the player ) choice to convert. A transformation into something other than a lady is referred to as a transformation. The farmer is taken out of the game and on the field, the new figure is set. The properties of the new piece will take effect immediately, this can therefore lead, for example, depending on the position for immediate checkmate. The conversion is not dependent on whether the selected figure was defeated in the course of the game. In this way, a player can get from a figure type more copies than are present in the basic position. So it is always memorable, if you get in a game, for example, a third jumper. If you only have one set of figures available, this of course leads to a problem. A second lady will therefore in practice - against the rules - mostly replaced in this case by an inverted tower. Usually, the conversion takes place in a lady (the conversion into a king is not allowed). This conversion option is the reason why the farmer during a chess game - especially in the final - can always be stronger.
It is usual in chess, divide the value of the other pawns queen, rook, bishop and knight in so-called peasant units based on the value of a farmer. A farmer has therefore the value of a peasant unit.
The deliberate abandonment of a farmer to obtain compensation benefits by position is referred to as pawns. If this happens in the opening phase, one also speaks of a gambit.
In the Persian game of the peasant was called " Pyâdah " ( " foot soldier " ) and are presented as such.
The farmer in the three phases of the game
In the opening
Pawn moves in the opening play an important role in the strategic development of a chess game. All other characters must first emerge from the farmer's plate (except for the jumpers ). Farmers can by their large number control a variety of fields and displace more valuable opponent's pieces. At the start of a game, the aim is with the farmers to occupy or control at least as many central squares. This space for own characters is created. The pawn structure is one of the most important features of a strategic assessment position.
In the middle game
In the middle game are the farmers - depending on the type of opening (closed, open ) - usually only individual farmer chains on the edge or center of the playing field or are just scattered as individual farmers. The farmers are at this stage of the game mostly passive and cover only other figures or block some fields. Due to their short walking distance they are indeed capable of affecting even less the middle game decisively, of the pawn structure, however, depends on, take the influence of the other figures on the game and what are your plans for further game design are adopted.
In the final
In the final, the farmers are gaining importance. The less other characters are left, the more effective will be the farmers. Your ability to engage in other, more valuable pieces ( lady rare in rook, bishop or knight ) to convert, giving the pawn ending its dynamics.
With " pawn structure " refers to a position all of the peasants to each other at certain points a game. A distinction is made, for example, between open and closed pawn structures. Open positions are in principle contrary to langschrittigen figures ( bishop, rook, queen ), while in the closed structure of the Springer can have their special advantages platoons.
- Pawn chain: Several farmers at a slant called pawn chain, the rear covers each of the front man. The rearmost Bauer this chain is thus more vulnerable. Bauer chains may therefore be easier attack on the base ( rearmost Bauer), under certain circumstances it is also expedient to attack the tip (front Bauer) by a lever. Nested Bauer chains are characteristic of closed positions.
- Aries (expression of Hans Kmoch ): The smallest unit of two nested Bauer chains; each of a pair of peasants opposite color facing each other directly and block each other eg white d4, e5 Black d5, e6.
- Bauer Islands: A farmer island comprises one or more neighboring farmers the same color and extends to the next line on which no farmer that color is more.
Secondly, the pawn structure also includes characteristics of a single, specific Bauer position:
- Yeoman: as a pawn is called a farmer on the two neighboring lines has neither his opponent nor farmers the right of farmers therefore can not be stopped on his way to conversion. Yeomanry are advantageous in normal case, since they are only a stop of figures, and these figures are bound by this task. Particularly strong are connected passed pawns, two or more pawns side by side because they can support each other on their way to the front.
- Doppelbauer: Two pawns of one color on the same line are called doubled pawns. Doubled pawns can often be a disadvantage, since one can not meet the other and the front farmer can block the rear. Less frequently encountered are the so-called triple - and quadruple farmers ( three or four pawns on a line ).
- Insulated farmer or ISOLANI: An isolated farmhouse has no own neighboring farmers more and therefore can no longer be covered by them. The typical isolated pawn is also located on an open (tower ) line of the opponent. Insulated Dual farmers are regarded as particularly weak.
- Re -employed farmer: A farmer is backward when an opponent's pawn on the adjacent line prevents him from advancing and his own pawns on the adjacent lines, the field to which it is to move forward, can not cover because they lack or have already brought forward too far been are. A backward pawn is weak. Also the field or two fields in front of him are weak when opponent's pieces can use it as a base. For this reason, the aim is to occupy fields before backward pawn of the opponent with minor pieces. You can then undisturbed control the opponent's position of farmers.
- Hanging farmers: These are two next to each other (mostly on c4 and d4 or in black on c5/d5 ) standing farmers on whose lines no longer exist opponent's farmers, but also can no longer be covered by their own farmers on adjacent lines. They often arise from closed openings and have both advantages ( control of key fields, space advantage ) as well as disadvantages ( easily attacked by an enemy, a lever backward or isolated Bauer arise ).
Some of these farmers positions are often referred to as a generalized weak or adverse pawn structures. However, this always depends on the circumstances of each consignment position. Thus, a single pawn, for example (positive) always at the same time an isolated pawn (negative).
- Marginal farmer or tower builder: the pawns on the a- and h- lines are called edge farmers or peasants tower. Marginal farmers are in the final is often hazardous, since their conversion is more difficult: Because of the confined edge position prevails, for example, in pawn endings or in endgames with Queen against (well advanced ) boundary farmers Patt danger of the opponent's king should be able to occupy the conversion field. In Springer playoffs, however, the edge farmers can be an advantage, since they can only be stopped by dropping or difficult but the effect of a blocking Springer is severely limited.
- Runners Bauer, Springer Bauer: In the final game are sometimes runner farmers (on the c -and f- lines) or Springer farmers (on the b -and g- lines) for the defender an advantage if all attempts at better standing party, to prevent them from converting, would lead to stalemate.
- Center Bauer: The central pawn ( Königbauer and Queen's Pawn ) on the d- and e- lines are mainly in the opening advantageous as it 's own center (the fields d4, d5, e4, e5) strengthen. Who dominates the center in the opening, is generally considered better.
- Lever: A pawn attacking a opponent's pawn, thus changing the pawn structure of the game or change is imminent.
- Poisoned Bauer: " poisoned " as referred to a peasant who is sacrificed by a player to gain a position ( Tempo! ) or material advantage, and whose beating therefore is a mistake.