Peace be upon him (Islam)
Islamic eulogies ( gr εὐλογία, literally, " good word " figurative meaning " blessing " ) are found in classical Islamic texts behind specific name, but now mostly just in religious literature, sometimes in the daily press in religious themes.
This formula is called in Arabic and in the literature: tasliya تصلية / taṣliya /, speaking this formula ' and: as- salat wa -t - salutation / الصلاة والتسليم / aṣ salad wa -t - salutation /, blessing and greeting ' the origins of the Qur'anic formula; in Sura 33, 56 we read:
"God and his angels speak blessings on the Prophet. O you who believe! Speak ( to her) blessings on him and greet ( him ), as it should be! "
In the Hadith and Fiqh
In the schools of Islamic law is commonly agreed that speaking the eulogy after the mention of the Prophet Mohammed a in the above Qur'anic imperative (Arabic: amr ) established compulsory ( wajib ) is. The tradition of literature addresses the issue of using the eulogy also and refers to an alleged saying of Muhammad, who is listed in the canonical hadith collections in different wording.
" Say: God, say the blessing on Muhammad and on his family as you talked about the family of Abraham the blessing. For you are worthy of praise and price. "
Ibn Hajar al - ʿ Asqalani has discussed in his commentary on al -Bukhari, the above passage in detail and supplemented with variants.
In prayer, the shahada is a dutiful act, the application of the eulogy at the mention of Muhammad's name in the shahada but only Sunna. It is, however, disputed whether the eulogy at the mention of others, recognized as a prophet of Islam people - Abraham, Moses, et al - also was the duty, although these are mentioned in the Qur'an with the benediction. The literature of tradition handed down this alleged prophet saying:
" Speak the blessing on the Prophet of Allah and in His Messengers, for God has sent me as. "
Uttering and writing this formula by the name of Mohammed is a virtuous deed, which must not be omitted. The hadith literature dealing with this question, both in dedicated chapters devoted as well as in monographic treatises dealing with this old, founded already in the Koran issue. The oldest collection of this goes to the Maliki scholars Ismā ʿ īl Ibn Ishaq al - Ǧahḍamī back († 895 ), the Qadi of Baghdad.
The tradition of literature deals with both the benefits and the omission of the blessing formula in alleged prophets Proverbs:
- " One who does not speak the blessing in my nomination, has ( its ) misses way to paradise. "
- " Perform your prayers in your houses, but they are not transformed into tombs. May God curse the Jews, ( because ) they have turned the graves of their Prophets into places of worship. Speak the blessing on me, for your prayers reach me wherever you are forever. "
- ʿ Abd Allāh, son of the Caliph Umar ibn al - Khattab used the blessing not only about Mohammed but also about Abu Bakr and Umar to speak.
- Salla ʾ llāhu ʿ alayhi wa sallam - ( a) ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) "God bless him and grant him peace! " is the eulogy today commonly used for the name of Muhammad.
- The form: " Salla ʾ ʿ alayhi llāhu " even with the addition wa - ʾ raḥmatu llāh صلى الله عليه ورحمت الله / God bless him and his mercy be upon him 'appears on the sacred inscription in the Dome of the Rock from the year 691-692 several times and in the archaic spelling of Rahma رحمت instead رحمة
- ʿ alayhi ʾ s -Salam (u ) ( عليه السلام ) " Hail! About him " is used for earlier prophets and archangels. In ancient manuscripts, this formula is also behind the name of Mohammed.
- Both in Islamic literature as well as in speeches in modern times following variant of the eulogy is used: qala 'alaihi afdalu s- salat wa -s- salam / قال عليه أفضل الصلاة والسلام / Qala ʿ alayhi afḍalu ʾ s salad wa - ʾ s -Salam, " it said (ie the Prophet Mohammed ), may apply to him the most excellent blessing and salvation ... " ( Hadith to follow ... ). Here is the eulogy replaced the subject to the verb (see illustration, line 1).
The oldest Tasliya in the secular sphere and in its archaic form dates from the time of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham as a rock inscription from the year 735:
اللهم صل على محمد النبي وعلى من يصلي عليه / Allahumma Salli ʿ alā Muḥammadin to - nabiy wa - ʿ alā you yuṣallī ʿ alayhi /, O God, that is the blessing of Mohammed the Prophet and to him who says the blessing over him. '
This ancient form of Tasliya is in the above inscription on the Dome of the Rock also associated with the name of Jesus:
اللهم صل على رسولك وعبدك عيسى بن مريم / Allahumma Salli wa - ʿ ʿ alā rasūlika abdika Īsā ʿ b. Maryama /, O God, say the blessing over your messengers and servants Īsā ʿ b. Maryam '.
The eulogies are often abbreviated today, get in the Arabic script then an overline, which may also be missing due to technical reasons. Whereas imported by Western converts Latin written variants then parentheses are usually set.
صلعم, صم or simply ص, in Latin script or sas sas. In the Unicode Standard, this eulogy belongs as a separate character ( ﷺ ) to the " Arabic Presentation Forms - A" with the number FDFA, but also ( صلعم ) with the number FDF5 is available.
The abbreviation: عم or simply ع, in Latin script: a stands for ʿ alayhi s -Salam.
According to some Sunni theologians (eg, as- Suyuti ( 1445-1505 ) ) should be avoided abbreviations used in this Quranic justified eulogy.
- Subhanahu wa - ta ʿ Ala ( سبحانه وتعالى ) "He is glorified and exalted " is the eulogy used for God.
- Radiya ʾ ʿ anhu llāhu ( رضى الله عنه ) " may God be pleased with him " for the companions of Muhammad and: ridwana ' llah ' alaihi / رضوان الله عليه / riḍwāna ʾ ʿ alayhi llāh /, God's pleasure was to him. ' In ancient writings the formula often stands behind the name of the author of a book on the title page. Abbreviation: رضه. This form is called in Arabic Tarḍiya and taraḍḍin, that is, speaking of: radiya ʾ ʿ anhu llāhu.
- Raḥimahu ʾ llāh (u ) ( رحمه الله ) "May God have mercy on him. " is a general blessing for the dead. Abbreviation: رحه. Similarly also:
- Raḥmatu ʾ llāh ( i) ʿ alayhi ( رحمة الله عليه ) "God's mercy on him." The formula is a variant of Raḥimahu ' llāhu. It's called tarhim, tarahhum / ترحيم, ترحم / tarḥīm, taraḥḥum. In ancient Arabic papyri and parchment leaves often appears in the form of the so-called tā ' at- Tawila: رحمت الله عليه.
- ḥafiẓahu ʾ llāhu حفظه الله " May God protect him " to use for the names of living persons. Is this formula for the name of the author of a work, this is an indication that the copy thereof was yet to be made during the lifetime of the author. In private letter used in the salutation according to the formula: ḥafiẓaka ʾ llāhu: " May God protect you "
- ḥarasahā ʾ llāhu ( حرسها الله ) " May it guard / protect God " are employed by the mention of well-known cities and countries (where the latter are Masc. ḥarashu ʾ llāhu ).