A display sheet is a printed product and belongs to the genre of the newspaper. Classically, a display sheet is free of charge and is mainly financed by ads. There is a variety of synonyms such as display newspaper ( free ) weekly, weekly or district newspaper. The titles are often simply called in Austria Local weekly newspapers, in Upper Bavaria and Switzerland Gazette. In English-speaking, they are called free papers and ( free ) non -daily papers.
Display leaves are as defined by the Federal Association of German advertising journals ( BVDA ) press products that are distributed free of charge at least weekly at regular intervals to the households in a clearly defined area of coverage.
- 2.1 Title Oldest Germany in the pre- and postwar
- 2.2 Foundation waves / development display leaves in Germany since 1960
- 3.1 reader and use
- 3.2 Delivery and delivery
- 3.3 turnover, number of titles, editions and publication 3.3.1 net advertising revenue
- 3.3.2 Current title and edition numbers
- 3.3.3 Frequency and Day
- 3.3.4 edition size classes
- 3.5.1 anti-competitive
- 3.5.2 Classification of the display leaves a press
- 3.5.3 separation of editorial and advertising part
- 3.5.4 Zustellverbote / Advertising objectors
- 3.5.5 delivery of advertising journals ( and brochures ) on Sunday
- 3.5.6 editorial Privacy
- 4.1 Definition
- 4.2 edition
- 4.3 reading time
- 4.4 sales
- 4.5 Regional Media Association of Austria
The effort is driven in advertising journals or display newspapers for the creation of the editorial part, is traditionally lower than for example in newspapers, but there are quite high quality fluctuations up and down.
The editorial page in newspaper ad usually includes 30-40 % of the total page scope. They are thus legally defined in Germany as a press products. Focuses on service tips and diverse shopping information, as well as reports on local or national events. The latter is found mainly in Sunday appearing Title ( eg current Bundesliga results, federal policy, issues from around the world ). As such, they are often the claim of a free Sunday paper needs.
The consumer tips include, for example, issues relating to construction and housing, health and wellness, automotive, fashion, travel, retirement or investment, pharmacies and medical emergency services, cinema programs, etc. Quite a few titles this offer specials. This may partly appear in a different format than the original display sheet (eg as a magazine with hard-cover - jacket in DIN A4).
Advertisements and inserts
Include display type leaves caused many ads, both of trade (including discount stores, specialty stores, eg for electronics, construction, etc.) as well as private and business classified ads (including real estate, automotive, jobs, contacts). All current special advertising forms are possible.
From the perspective of advertisers, the high household coverage is a major reason for the ad.
The "Intelligence Journal " was the first form of a display sheet. However, it turned not about special requirements for the intelligence, but it turned to anyone who wanted to find out or take " insight" ( intel casual ). Their story began in France. Opened in 1612 the Parisian doctor Théophraste Renaudot ( 1586-1653 ) a ad agency ( "bureau d' adresses "). Actually it should be a non-profit job board for vagabonds, but established himself as Information Exchange for all sorts of purchases, sales, vacancies or travel arrangements. The demand was so great that the deals could be from 1631 published as " Feuille du bureau d' adresses " ( " Journal of the office address " ) periodically and was also distributed free of charge. The display sheet model was born. The first Intelligenzblatt in German-speaking areas appeared on January 1, 1722 in Frankfurt am Main. Until about 1840, the display monopoly was frequently assigned to the intelligence leaves the state. That usually only ads were allowed to be published, also had advantages: Intelligence leaves remained, for example, of the Napoleonic newspaper ban wave of 1810 spared.
Until circa 1930 the name "Intelligence Journal " was in use. The historian Frederick Huneke recorded 188 start-ups in 166 places. His colleague, the Bremer Presse researcher Professor Holger Böning, estimates their number at least 220 alone in the 18th century ( German speaking ). The ZDB ( www.Zeitschriftendatenbank.de ) shows about 560. Today in Germany there are only a newspaper ad that calls itself so - in Bavaria ( Villages ). With the assumption of power by the National Socialists in Germany in 1933, the freedom of the media was abolished step by step. Affected areas also display leaves.
With the announcement of the advertising council of the German economy of 20 October 1934 was the most forbidden to publish third-party advertisements, and they were not allowed to be distributed for free, but had to charge a subscription price. Thus, the economic basis of many titles has been withdrawn.
Oldest title in Germany in the pre- and postwar
On September 21, 1949, the general license was issued: German, who were not accused ( denazification ), were allowed to publish a newspaper. Advertising papers appeared increasingly again, or were newly founded. Among the oldest still present in the market today include the created in 1931, Eschweiler film post and was founded in 1879 in Annweiler ( Rhineland -Palatinate ) Trifels courier. He appeared according to current estimates until around 1949 as a bulletin. Previously, he was weekly and daily newspaper. The originally as a local parish newsletter households undelivered Westend Gazette (Group Munich Wochenanzeiger ) appeared in Munich for the first time 1926. Likewise the oldest titles include the Sendlinger Gazette, founded in 1943 (Group Munich Wochenanzeiger ), which formed in 1946 Lippischen Latest News ( Detmold ) or the Kulmbach indicators (1949 ). Last mentioned title appeared first as a pure " ads Sheet" on only two sides. He published exclusively business advertisements of any kind Editorial contributions were completely absent. With the release of " ads - sheet " however, offered mainly to the retail Kulmbach a great way to praise his wares. It was only later also editorial contributions were added.
Also one of the oldest titles include those that were founded in the 50s. For example, the " Lokalanzeiger Waldbroel ", the " Weilimdorfer Gazette " or the " Langenhagener Echo / Wedemark Echo" (all 1950), the " community indicators ", the "Freiburg Weekly Report " or the " Amper Bote " in Dachau (all 1952 ), the " weekly hatred hole" (1953), the " Zuffenhäuser week" (1954 ), the Stuttgart-based weekly paper (1955), the "home echo " from Hamburg (1957 ), "Kölner Wochenspiegel " (1958) or the " Saarbrücken Wochenspiegel "(1959).
Were in the 18th and 19th centuries from intelligence or display sheets often daily newspapers, there was the end of the 20th century isolated opposite developments: Paid daily or weekly newspapers were converted into free advertising newspapers: the created in 1931, " Rhenish Gazette " in Dormagen (1994 ), the "Bremer Gazette " was founded in 1890 as Bremer citizen Newspaper (1976 ), as is established in 1946, Spandau people sheet. The title was changed in a paid weekly newspaper in 1992 and has been published since 1994 as a local edition of the Berlin weekly newspapers display ("Your weekly newspaper" ) - but still under the name of " Spandau people sheet ". A similarly eventful existence, the published in Annweiler am Trifels since 1879 " Trifels courier " on: first, it appeared as normal paid weekly newspaper, in 1924 to 1945, he was published as a daily newspaper, and since circa 1949 established as a free weekly newspaper in the region ( " messenger from Trifels: ads and messages for Annweiler am Trifels ").
Founding waves / development display leaves in Germany since 1960
In 1964 there were already 170 weeks leaves at week 2 million copies. Between 1970 and 1985 there was a true start-up boom. In 1970, a total of 335 titles published with a circulation of 9 million copies, it was 1980 already 750 titles with 32 million and 49.7 million copies in 1985 - almost 2 /3 of the pad, which can be found (2006) today. Between 1990 ( reunion ) and 2000 created an additional 300 titles - mainly in East Germany.
Advertising papers in Germany
Reader and use
The importance of advertising newspapers as a source of information for local consumption and living environment has examined the Institute for Allensbach on behalf of BVDA. For the study in 2013, more than 25,000 people were interviewed; it is thus representative of the population in Germany over 14 years.
Display blades reach almost the entire population: The Widest Audience ( WLK ) is 82.9 percent ( population 14 years). For those over 60 years of age he is at 88.9 percent, among the under 30 -year-olds at 70.6 percent. The overwhelming majority it uses regular or semi- regular basis ( 56.4 percent). Read further 20 per cent ad leaves about two to three times per month.
Display leaves are an important source of information for purchases - even from the younger generation view: for example, responded to the question, two out of three Germans: " In the Display Sheet" " Where to get their opinion interesting shopping tips and information about special offers? ". Then follow only national daily newspaper (54 percent), personal interviews (34 percent) and magazines / city magazines ( 18 percent). The internet comes with eight percent only 5th place
As a source of information about the local consumer and life-world, the Internet is still of minor importance. So held 23 percent of Germans the internet for a good source on local politics and local developments, the issue of shopping and special offers there were eight percent. In the under 30 -year-olds, the proportion is higher ( 37 and 18 percent respectively ).
The keen interest in advertising information is also reflected in the following result contrary: every second display leaf reader in Germany 16 years and estimates at your own display sheet, the supplement " many interesting brochures " that are more than 31 million people. For those interested in shopping tips and readers with a strong bond to the sheet, this proportion is even higher (56 and 64 percent respectively ).
Delivery and delivery
Display sheets will be distributed in a defined area usually all reachable households free of charge. They must and will be delivered as a press products and advertising objectors. Around 170,000 deliverer make - mostly as a mini - jobbers - the week sheets. 57% are pupils / students ( Others: pensioners, housewives, etc). The publishers state that they check the delivery services through diverse methods of control.
Turnover, number of titles, editions and publication
Net advertising revenue
The titles are financed entirely from advertising revenue ( advertisements and supplements ).
The display leaves in Germany recorded in fiscal 2012 compared to net advertising revenues a slight decline of 2.8 percent. According to the already successful business year 2011, we succeeded in Germany weekly with 2.001 billion euros net advertising revenue again a very good result in their history to achieve. The display leaves remained in 2012 the third largest advertising medium in Germany behind the television and the newspapers.
Current title and edition numbers
There are in the year 2012 473 publishers active in Germany, the 1,435 title issue (as of 1 January 2013). The total circulation of the display leaves in Germany is 94 million, with a circulation of 65.2 million represent organized in BVDA title around 70 % of the total circulation.
Frequency and daily
The most important criterion for the appearance day of display leaves are the needs of the trade. It is clear publication topics show mid-week and weekend. 51 percent of all titles released on Wednesday ( 743 ). On Thursday 155 titles appear. This means that on Wednesday and Thursday, 63 percent of all advertising journals are published.
In addition to the midweek has to be a further focus the weekend emerged. Currently 259 titles appear on Sunday with 20.5 million copies ( 2011: 21.8 ). This corresponds to a market share of 21.8 percent (share AB edition). On Saturday there were 247 free papers at 19.9 million copies, a significant increase. Thus, about two-thirds of all display leaves appear in Germany during the week, about a third will be released on weekend.
Pad size classes
Approximately 34.9 % of the tracks are laid with a circulation 25001-50000 copies, 28 % 50001-100000 copies and 20 % with a circulation 10001-25000 copies. Significantly fewer titles appear with conditions imposed by the size class 100001-200000 ( 9.1% ) and title with more than 200,000 circulation ( 4.9%). Taking into account that the pad weakest, weekly titles have pads around the 3,000 copies, the largest-circulation come to 800,000 to 1.53 million individuals, shows the wide range of display newspapers in Germany. The high volume titles generally have numerous sub- issues.
Layout, printing and pagination
The vast number of titles is printed almost in full color. Cut Photos or teaser on the first page are not uncommon. Some titles are held in tabloid, others in traditional newspaper style. The number of pages usually moves 12-38 pages. Advertising papers will be published to 10% in the smaller tabloid format to 90 % in the traditional newspaper formats (Rhenish, Berlin, Nordic ) as well.
A number of legal issues are discussed in connection with advertising papers.
The question of whether a free distribution of advertising papers with the law against unfair competition was compatible, had to be clarified highest court.
With reference to § 1 of the UWG old version (before July 8, 2004 ) ( "Whoever takes actions in the course of transport, for competition purposes that violate the decency [ ... ]") had the Bundesgerichtshof ( IIC 1969, 287 - Stuttgart weekly paper I) in its judgment of 18 December 1968, the admissibility of the distribution free of charge of advertising journals with editorial content still doubted.
Final clarity paved the Federal Court in its judgment of 26 March 1971 ( IIC 1971, 477 - Stuttgart weekly paper II). It was confirmed to free information on both editorial and commercial character the right of citizens.
Classification of the display leaves a press
Other judgments in which advertising papers counted as press products with appropriate privileges: LG Freiburg (June 6, 1969), BKA Berlin (02/ 1978), LG Bonn ( May 29, 1979 ), OLG Hamm (15 November 1979) and LG Osnabrück (23 May 1984). Also: BGH (1972, NJW ), Freiburg Weekly Report (1956 ), Hanseatic Higher Regional Court (Case v. January 27, 2005, 3 U 113/ 04, JurPC Web Doc 96/2005, para 1-68; Quote:. " The press concept is far and formally interpreted, so, eg also display sheets under it "). The interpretation of the term "press" is determined according to formal criteria, based on the production and reproduction methods. Be managed so all suitable for dissemination to the general public and specific print products. This excludes a communication made pursuant to the contents of products differentiation. Otherwise, the protection of press freedom would be shortened inadmissible. But not only advertising journals or newspapers, but the display portion ( the display) even met with the public duty of the press and therefore also subject to general freedom of the press. In his Südkurier decision of 1967, the Federal Constitutional Court ( Bundesverfassungsgericht ) approved the display part to the property of press law protected messages. Starting from the realization that not only the distribution of their own opinions, but also the pure message is recorded without their own opinions of the freedom of the press, founded the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfGE 21, p 271/278 et seq - Südkurier, 64, 108/114f. ) the protection of ads with whereas also represent these messages. The protection of the display part can also result from the financing function, namely for the case that this is the indispensable prerequisite for economic non-partisan press. This assessment of the display and the resulting press legal consequences therefore apply, for example, both daily newspapers, as well as for advertising flyers - regardless of scale and design of editorial ( BGHZ - decision of the Bundesgerichtshof, 51, 236/246 - Stuttgarter weekly paper I; AfP 1992, 65/67 - Official Gazette ).
Separation of editorial and advertising part
As for all media goes for display leaves the principle of separation of editorial content and advertising. Anything else would be called product placement and is not permitted under competition law ( § 4 No. 3 UWG).
In many advertising newspapers were accused of not strictly followed this separation.
Zustellverbote / Advertising objectors
Advertising papers include non-traditional advertising and the press are assigned. Due to the considerable editorial section, they may also be served on advertising objectors. A mailbox Sticker " Please, no advertising " so does not affect the delivery of display leaves. A mailbox Sticker " Please no free (or unsolicited ) Newspapers " refers to the object more accurately and is more sensitive. Regard, the Stuttgart Higher Regional Court ( judgment of 12 November 1993 (2 U 117/93 ) ) states: " Such recipients of the weekly paper, who feel bothered, can throw the other with little effort already by attaching a clearer label or by a prevent telephone / written notice to the defendant and (if necessary ) enforce court. "Nevertheless, the right of notification was in a number of judgments of courts of appeals confirmed ( see also bottom village in AfP 4/89 pp. 322-325 " the distribution of display leaves against the will of the addressee "). The Oberlandesgericht Stuttgart presented for example in the judgment of 12 November 1993 (2 U 117/93 ) the fundamental status Press the display leaves once again firmly and thus decided the distribution issue in their favor.
Delivery of advertising journals ( and brochures ) on Sunday
With the entry into force of the new Law on Working Time ( Arbeitszeitgesetz ) the working time regulations were superseded in 1938 on 6 June 1994. In particular, the work on Sundays and public holidays was allowed on economic grounds by the new regime. With the new law on working hours, the delivery of weekly on Sundays and public holidays was allowed nationwide. Until 1994, the delivery of advertising newspapers on Sundays or public holidays was legally controversial and often even prohibited.
Negotiations on the editorial Privacy under the direction of the German Press Council focused explicitly displaying leaves. Due to an EU directive, the amendment to the Federal Data Protection Act ( BDSG) was necessary to let expect a significant restriction of press privilege. This tightening could be averted, that the editorial data protection is regulated in the self-control of the German Press Council. A requirement of the Home Secretary was that the ad papers are included in this system (see press release of the German Press Council of 28 November 2001).
Display leaves in Austria
In Austria, hot display sheets "Free weekly newspapers " or " regional newspapers ". They have usually more than 50 % share of editorial coverage. According to the published by the Association of Austrian Regional Media Study " RegioPrint2005 " feature of Austria leaves display a range in the residential population aged 14 years of 76 % ( LpA). This corresponds to 5.1 million readers and 8.5 million contacts.
As in Germany, the term " advertiser " in Austria is clearly negative connotations and many publishers feel such a term even as an insult, because the tracks generally have a good 50% editors, and the publishers take great care not referred to as display sheets be. As an advertiser only those titles are usually referred to exclusively publish ads - and that is the absolute minority. Display leaves hot in Austria "Regional ( free ) weekly newspapers " or simply " regional media / regional newspapers ."
As in Germany, Austria stand display leaves a very good position. Especially in the period before 2000, there were significant increases in particular with respect to the support. She lay 1999/2000 of about 6 million copies, it is now estimated at 8 million. In the Alpine republic, there are estimated to about 200 ad sheets - about as much as six years ago.
According Region Print is the read time of many titles, like in Germany, well over 20 minutes ( but usually less than 30 ). The title requirements also vary widely. For example, the Bezirksjournal Vienna with 592,000 copies will be distributed every 14 days. The regional weekly from Klagenfurt in turn is published weekly, on Wednesdays, and will be delivered with 219 462 copies ( OAK ) to households. Some titles bring it to more than 20 sub- editions. However, only about 3.4 million of the 8 million editions are free papers / Regional free weeklies tested - and by the Austrian Society for Determining the Distribution of Advertising / Austrian support control ( OAK ). This corresponds to a coverage of 46.5 %.
In contrast to Germany, where traditionally working heavily with statistics, there is often no in Austria continuous statistics. Therefore, for example, revenue for advertising flyers / Free weekly newspapers is estimated only on the basis of surveys and therefore is approximately € 175 million net per year in the single digits tendency is rising. Recently, the Association also collects from its members on a monthly basis, the net sales growth in order to have more concrete data material at hand.
Regional Media Association of Austria
Just about all major display music / Free weekly newspapers (VRM) are organized in the Association of Regional Media Austria. Of the total of 200 titles in Austria, appearing predominantly weekly, are around 148 in the association. This corresponds to a circulation of 7.3 million copies per publication interval.