Pepi I Meryre

Pepi I was an Egyptian king (Pharaoh) of the 6th dynasty (Old Kingdom) and reigned about 2295-2250 BC

  • 3.1 The Pyramid of Pepi I at Saqqara -South
  • 3.2 Other construction activity


Pepi I was the son of Teti II and the Iput I.


He came to his father's murder and the subsequent turmoil throne as a child to the pharaohs throne and reigned at least 40 years. Some sources even suggest a regency of up to 62 years back ( Vercoutter 44 years of Beckerath, Grimal: at least 40 years, Hornung: 32 years old, Helck: 20 years). According to Manetho he reigned 53 years. Busy are the 21st and the 25th year of the census ( tax collection, previously every two years, may now each year ).

Family policy

After eliminating the older queen ( harem conspiracy ) in the 21 census he married in succession two daughters of Chui ( HWJ ) from Abydos, both accepted the farm names Anchenespepi or Anchenesmerire. The older, Anchenespepi I., mother of Merenre I died, probably soon after the birth of her son; the younger, Anchenespepi II, lived in the reign of her son Pepi II Other wives were Nubwenet, Inenek - Inti, Meritites II, Nedjeftet, Behenu and Haaheru. With the latter he had a son named Hornetjerichet. Other children whose mothers are unknown, had a son named Tetianch and two daughters named Neith and Iput II, both brother Pepi II were married later with her (half ).

Domestic Policy

Domestically, continued the development of the provinces for greater autonomy against the residence.

Viziers of Pepi I. are some known: from the early reign Anch-mahor/Sesi, Mereruka / Meri, Chentikai / Ichechi, Mehu, Ptah - hotep. Later Tep -em -ankh, Tjenti, Meriteti, Rawer, mereri, Nefer-sechem-sechat/Chenu, Sesi and Idu / Nefer Ankh Meryre.

Vizier of Upper Egypt was Zau, the brother of the Queens Anchenespepi I. and Anchenespepi II at Abydos Iuu.

Foreign Policy

Campaigns in the Sinai and Palestine in his time are occupied.


The pyramid of Pepi I. in Saqqara -South

The Pyramid of Pepi I at Saqqara -South was called Men - nefer - Pepi ( Pepi is beautiful and eternal). This gave rise later, the name Memphis for the capital. Today, the pyramid has fallen sharply, so that the cover of the burial chamber is visible from the outside. This was in their proportions quite small (side length 76 m) and contains the Pyramid Texts.

In search of the two pyramids of the queens Anches - Meryre early 1995 by Jean Leclant was discovered a previously unknown Pyramide29.85452777777831.218777777778 at Saqqara, with mortuary temple and the remains of an obelisk, which are assigned on the basis of inscriptions Pepi and a Queen Merit - Ites. Merit - Ites to be another wife, daughter or granddaughter of Pepi. However, the Egyptian Antiquities Service dated this pyramid in the 8th dynasty.

According to Schneider, the pyramids of the Inenek - Inti and "Western Queen " are the tombs of the two Anches - Meryre.

More construction

Sacral construction activity in Bubastis, Abydos, Tanis, Dendera, Elephantine, Heliopolis, Koptos, Armant, Edfu and Hierakonpolis has been demonstrated.

Further evidence

James Edward Quibell found in 1898 in Hierakonpolis the beautifully crafted head of a falcon Horus of gold and obsidian.

It has also found the biography of a Weni, who was already under Teti sub overseer of the royal domains. Pepi I appointed Weni to the judge and priest of his pyramid temple.

Later Weni appears as commander in chief of the army, the Nubian troops recruited and initiated five criminal campaigns against rebellious Bedouin. A sixth expedition led him to Palestine.


Two statues of Pepi I. were found at the end of the 19th century by James Edward Quibell in custody at the Temple of Horus at Hierakonpolis. You are now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo ( JE 33034 and JE 33035 Inv ). There are two hollow statues of hammered copper with a wooden core. The larger is 177 cm tall; Smaller the other hand, measures only 65 cm and was found inside the large statue. The large statue is illustrated border. The right arm is applied to the body, the left angled, however, and the king holds a staff in his hand. Schurz and crown were worked separately and have not survived. In the eyes there are deposits of limestone and obsidian. The small figure is also shown border, but created with both arms to the body. Instead of a crown she wears a wig. On the front there is a hole for a separately manufactured uraeus, which has but neither obtained as the skirt. The small statue possession in the eyes of deposits of limestone and obsidian, also have been preserved on the toenails remains of a gilding. Since only the large statue has an inscription, there are different views, who represents the little one. One hypothesis assumes that it represents Pepi I. Merenre son, who was appointed heir to the throne of his father sed festival. According to another hypothesis is, however, a rejuvenated appearance of Pepi I. One of the Roman-Germanic Central Museum posted in Mainz restorer could carried out in cooperation with the German Archaeological Institute restoration of the two statues and a falcon complete with gold crown in 2002.

Another piece is of unknown origin and is now in the Brooklyn Museum ( Inv. No. 39 121 ). It is a statuette of slate with a height of 15.2 cm, a width of 4.6 cm and a depth of 9 cm. The piece shows the king kneeling with an apron and the Nemes kerchief. On the front there is a hole in which a now lost uraeus was used. The eyes have deposits of alabaster for the eyeballs and obsidian for the pupils. In the laid hands on the thighs of the king holding two spherical pots. On the front of the base plate of the proper name of Pepi is mounted on the right side of the statuette his throne name Meri -Re. As the inscription on the base plate is also called the goddess " Hathor, Lady of Dendera ", it is conceivable that Dendera is the origin of the piece.

Another statuette Also located at the Brooklyn Museum of unknown origin ( Inv. No. 39 120 ). It is made of alabaster and measures 26.7 cm × 6.98 cm × 15.9 cm. The king is represented seated on a throne. He wears a coat - sed festival and holds scourge and crook crossed over his chest. On his head he wears the white crown of Upper Egypt. Behind his head is sitting on the arm of the throne, a right -facing Horus falcon. An inscription on the base plate gives the name of Pepi.

During excavations that took place between 2001 and 2003 in the northwest Sakkaras, two terracotta figures, which show both a lion goddess, at whose feet are two kings depicted as children. In the first figure, which has a total height of 100 cm, the right king is marked with the Horus name of Cheops, the second king of the 4th dynasty. The left King is worked separately and bears the proper name of Pepi I. Presumably, whose statue was added later, and the figure is likely to have originated already under Cheops. The second figure is almost identical in size and appearance to the first. The only difference is that the goddess holds a scepter here. Again, are shown at their feet two kings, of which the left was added later and bears the name of Pepi I.. When rights are no inscription has received. Due to their similarity, the excavators assume, however, that both statues belong together and were made at the same time under Cheops or its successor. Later added Pepi I. His image. In the Middle Kingdom, finally, in the meantime broken statues were repaired and reused, with the kings against the lion goddess depicted were probably lost in importance, as their names were painted over with plaster.

Cairo JE 33035

Brooklyn 39 121

Brooklyn 39 120

Pepi I. in memory of Ancient Egypt

During the New Kingdom in the 18th Dynasty under Thutmose III. the so-called King List of Karnak mounted in Karnak temple, in which the name of Pepi I. is called. Unlike other ancient Egyptian king lists, these are not a complete list of all rulers, but a selection list that lists only those kings, for during the reign of Thutmose III. Sacrifices were offered.