Peredvizhniki (Russian Передвижники; German: Wanderer) were a group of Russian artists, primarily painters, the representative of realism in painting were. These formed in protest against the restrictions of the St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Arts, a cooperative of artists who finally in 1870, her appearance in the cooperative artistic exhibitions ( Товарищество передвижных художественных выставок ) found.
The company was founded in St Petersburg on the initiative of Kramskoi, Mjassojedow, Ge and Perov. The background formed a debate within the academy between the representatives of the vanguard of the arts that used to democratic ideals and the representatives who fought for the declared and taught by the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts doctrines.
The head of the newly formed company was Ivan Kramskoi. The Peredvizhniki were influenced by the aesthetic views of Vissarion Belinsky and Nikolai Chernyshevsky.
In the period 1871-1923 48 Wanderausstellungungen in Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Kharkov, Kazan, Orel, Riga, Odessa and other cities of the former Russian Empire were the Peredvizhniki organized and carried out.
As a painter of realism, they often formed from the complex character of social life, with critical notes. In the humanistic art of Peredvizhniki showed the resolute condemnation of the absolutist rule of Russia. The most important intention of their art was the portrayal of urban life and the traditions of the people.
The movement of Peredvizhniki reached a growing influence in their heyday during the 1870s and 1880s. In contrast to the traditional dark colors this time, these artists chose brighter, more dazzling colors. They put on naturalness in their images and showed the relationships between people and their environment.
The society united almost all of the most talented painters in the country. The Peredvizhniki soon also included artists from Ukraine, Latvia and Armenia.
Around the turn of the century began the Peredvizhniki their focus on the representation of life to lose. Waned Their influence on society and some artists began to represent socialist ideas, abbildeten the development of the labor movement. Many Peredvizhniki pleaded for Soviet art and contributed to the emergence of Socialist Realism in painting at.
In 1923, the 48th and at the same time last exhibition of the Peredvizhniki took place.
Significant representatives (selection)
- Abram Efimovich Arkhipov
- Nikolai Nikolaevich Ge
- Nikolai Aleksandrovich Yaroshenko
- Nikolai Alexeyevich Kassatkin
- Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi
- Archip Ivanovich Kuindzhi
- Rafail Sergeevich Levitsky
- Isaak Ilyich Levitan
- Konstantin Makovsky Jegorowitsch
- Vladimir Makovsky Jegorowitsch
- Vasily Maximov Maximowitsch
- Grigory Grigoryevich Mjassojedow
- Ivan Miassojedoff
- Mikhail Vasilyevich Nesterov
- Vasily Grigoryevich Perov
- Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov
- Illarion Mikhailovich Prjanischnikow
- Ilya Repin
- Konstantin Savitsky Apollonowitsch
- Alexei Savrasov
- Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin
- Valentin Aleksandrovich Serov
- Dmitri Minajewitsch Sinodi - Popov
- Vasily Ivanovich Surikov
- Ivan Petrovich Trutnev
- Mikhailovich Vasnetsov Apollinari
- Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov
- Vasily Vasilyevich Vereshchagin
- Sergei Vinogradov Arsenjewitsch