Peripteros (Greek: ὁ περίπτερος < ναός > - the " ringsbeflügelte " Temple, also peripteral or dipteral temples called ), is a type of the ancient temple, where the cella is surrounded by a by a ring of columns ( peristasis ) limited use ( Pteron ) surrounded.

The Peripteros is probably the best known and most widely used form of the Greek temple. His Naos is almost always formed as a temple in antis or double anta temple. Therefore, the Peripteros usually has a pronaos and maybe a opisthodomos, which are formed from the protruding antenna and usually two intervening columns.

The Peripteros has six columns on front and back pages in the rule. The number of columns on the long sides, however, could vary greatly. Was it especially in the Archaic period high ( Heraion at Olympia (Greece ) with 6 x 17 columns ), the solution leveled off for the Doric temple with 13 columns on the long sides in the classical period a. But Temple 15 column (Apollo temple in Delphi) or 6 x 14 (temple of Athena Alea in Tegea ) came with 6 x continues to face, even if only as a reminder of archaic models. At the transition to the Hellenistic period, the proportion could fall out squat, as evidenced by the Temple of Asklepios at Epidaurus with 6 x 11 columns or of Athena at Pergamon with 6 x 10 columns. A special form under the Doric temple, the Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens with its 8 x 17 column dar. However, it also follows the classical ratio of the column numbers on the front pillar scheme flank columns x = nx 2n 1.

Peripteroi Ionic order were usually sized slightly smaller and more compact in their columns ratio. Thus, the Temple of Zeus in Labraunda had only 6 x 8 columns, the temple of Apollo at Alabanda only 6 x 9 columns, the Temple of Athena in Priene 6 x 11 columns. Nevertheless, 18 columns could also be there temple Archaic period 6 x have ( Heraion of Samos).

Unconventional fell often the Peripteroi in bulk from Greece. In addition to classical solutions ( Temple of Athena in Paestum 6 x 13 columns) had numerous temples elongated proportions of 6 x 14 or 6 x 15 columns, which can be attributed to many of their formation in the Archaic period. But there were also temples with an odd number of front pillars such as the Temple of Hera I ( the so-called Basilica ), Paestum, with its 9 x 18 columns, which is nevertheless not to be regarded as pseudodipteros. Contrary to all the practices Frontjoche were over the edge Jochen shortened while the classic solution would expect the reverse execution or even Jochweiten In this temple.

Ever found in southern Italy more often a certain independence of the individual parts of the building. While the temple of the mother country or of Ionia have the Naos firmly integrated into the rhythm of the column position by columns escapes and rock faces are clearly related to each other, the great Greek buildings in the surrounding ring hall seem to swim. Often, neither the cella walls aligned with the front pillars in any form, nor included the antenna with a lower column diameter or from the Achsweiten to be determined heading.

The few as Peripteros to be addressed stamp lower and central Italy always have squat pillars ratios, such as the Temple of Apollo in Pompeii (6 x 10 columns), Temple A in the Area Sacra di Largo Argentina in Rome (6 x 9 columns) or the temple of Castor on the Roman Forum in Rome ( 6 x 11 columns).

Even in ancient Egypt temples were built in a similar form as dealing temple, an example is the temple of Amenhotep III. on Elephantine.

Related temple types

Are the pillars of the long sides of the naos been displayed only as a half-columns, one speaks of a Pseudoperipteros. A Peripteros with a double ring of columns is called Dipteros. Also, this design is found in a modification, the pseudodipteros, the inner row of columns was omitted.

Other examples