Didactics of philosophy is the subject didactics of philosophy. Subject of the teaching of philosophy is the philosophy lessons. The didactics can be aimed at both children and young adults and adults. The focus on children is called philosophizing with children.
- 4.1 Text Free Lessons 4.1.1 Socratic Method
- 4.1.2 philosophy in dispute
- 4.1.3 Dilemma Discussion
- 4.4.1 Role play
- 4.4.2 Text Theatre
- 4.4.3 philosophy in film
- 9.1 Teaching Philosophy
- 9.2 Magazines
- 9.3 Introductory literature to philosophy
- 9.4 textbooks, textbooks, collections of texts
→ Main article: Philosophy Teaching
Object of philosophy teaching is the teaching of philosophy, ie the teaching and learning of philosophy. Philosophy can be taught as a philosophizing with children in kindergarten and primary school. In high school philosophy is in many countries a compulsory school subject or a Wahlplichtfach. In Germany and Austria philosophy or ethics is a replacement tray for religious instruction. Philosophy is taught at colleges and universities.
Tasks of Teaching
The subject didactics is different from the general didactics in their different wide scope. In answering questions in didactic teaching methodology, the conditions of the compartment must be taken into account. According to Hans Gloeckel out the missions of Didactics determined as follows: You
- Describes the historical passage of their discipline,
- Explored, reflected and justified all aspects of teaching in each subject,
- Explores the actually held teaching and its results,
- Leads to the practice of the teaching and
- Developed and tested in practice teaching models.
Jonas Pfister different conceptual, normative, descriptive and historical- descriptive questions of subject didactics and the normative, the following four:
- Justification question: What is to be taught and learned?
- Content Question: What should be taught and learned?
- Methods Question: What is to be taught and learned?
- Test methods Question: How to check whether the scholar has learned?
Experiments, as comprehensively as possible to answer these questions may be referred to as didactic approaches.
In the German Didactics can be distinguished two basic positions, the dialogical and pragmatic and theoretical education identity theoretical approach. In addition, there are alternative approaches.
The dialogical and pragmatic approach
The communication and practice-oriented approach is the " philosophy " in the center, which he sees as a basic cultural technique. This culture technique may prove itself to many topics and is only loosely bound to the philosophical tradition. The most important representatives of this approach is the Hamburg Ekkehard Martens.
The educational theory identity theoretical approach
The more text-oriented approach is the "after- thought" and know the tradition in the center. Founder of this approach is the Düsseldorf teacher Wulff Rehfus. He writes: " In the teaching of philosophy it comes to the student to lead to the traditional and current problems and solutions of the philosophy, the methods of philosophizing ( as transcendental, for example, dialectical, hermeneutic, etc. ), and finally to the ways to to develop philosophical writings philosophical. " Hinführung " so is not stepping down of the great thinkers on student level, conversely, it is much more important to lead the students to philosophy. purpose mainly paradigmatic authors are. Among them are to be understood as a have developed philosophy in its basic features, which was in the period following the starting point for further philosophical discussion. "
The dialectical philosophy teaching
The dialectical philosophy teaching by Roland W. Henke is an attempt to " modern [n ] Philosophy Teaching " (2000 ) and " position between Martens and Rehfus ". The basic idea formulated Henke as follows:
If the key set of a dialectical philosophy of teaching is true that there against philosophy (as entrenched ideology or belief ) no other effective means are as philosophizing, just as this criticism and assessment of solid philosophical positions must be instigated with the students. Especially from Hegel can learn that thinking can not stop at its unique setting and may be found here. The criticism, yes, the decomposition and the resulting rejection often ARISING firmly entrenched content is inherently him, and it also represents the condition of the structure of a reason-led independent judgment competence is that is needed everywhere in a pluralistic society with divergent sense to do.
As a remedy against the risk of appearance of knowledge and skepticism suggests Henke to refocus on teaching dialectical thoughts developments from the history of philosophy and to involve independent thinking of students in it.
There are various approaches that align the teaching of philosophy to philosophical skills. These include:
- The instructive theoretical approach by Karel van der Leeuw and Pieter Mostert.
- The constructivist approach of France and Rollin Michel Tozzi.
- The Aristotelian approach of Nathalie peace.
- The approach of Anita Rösch.
The systemic- historical philosophy teaching
The " systemic- historical philosophy of teaching " by Matthias Bublitz. This approach sees the task of philosophy teaching is to train the student in dealing with mental systems, ideologies and thought patterns. For example, empiricism, idealism, anarchism, solipsism - these "isms " are to be the subject of teaching. It should also be taught that you "isms " must see quite critical since every intellectual system tends to be one-sided and there is a danger of exaggeration. On the other hand, however, a decline into mere pragmatism should be avoided. Students should also be encouraged to confess in a critical way to " - isms". This approach, which was published in 2006 by Matthias Bublitz the term " systemic- historical philosophy of teaching ", sets itself apart from the practical communication didactics, which he accused of superficiality and Entsystematisierung of thinking. But he also opposes a unilateral emphasis on text analysis and advocates concise and clear introduction texts in popular language of science.
- The high-school teaching philosophy of Hegel.
- The philosophiedaktische approach of Joseph Schmucker -Hartmann.
- The philosophiedaktische approach of John Rohbeck tried to mediate between academic philosophy and school-based teaching practice. He transformed didactic potential of philosophy in philosophical skills that can be acquired by students.
- Narrative philosophy teaching by Maria Muck: " Philosophy Teaching is both knowledge and collective self- determination. "
In the general didactic teaching methods according to the social form ( class instruction, individual work, pair work, group work ) and after work form can be distinguished. There are a variety of teaching methods for the teaching of philosophy. One can distinguish in general, whether the methods on the reading and interpretation of texts relates (text -bound classes ) or not (text free lessons).
Free text lessons
The text- free education is usually in a philosophical conversation. One can distinguish different forms of conversation.
→ Main article: Socratic Method
In the Socratic dialogue is attempted on the basis of Socrates ' maieutic method to teach philosophy in the sense of self- discovery of truth. In conversation aporias, contradictions, fractures are presented in the argument, which in turn serve as an approach for further exploration of issues.
Philosophy in dispute
The dispute is a form of intensive discussion of philosophical positions. There are various forms, such as defense, which are carried out according to various rules. The difference between discussion and philosophizing is in justifying the reasons on meta-level. A discussion is successful if the members of the discussion to justify their opinions when they argue. Philosophically, the discussion as soon as the reasons are reviewed and analyzed for meta-level.
The discussion of ethical dilemmas can improve the moral judgment. This method has been refined especially by Georg Lind in Konstanz Method of Dilemma Discussion ( KMDD ). Both the philosophy as well as for the teaching of ethics dilemmas are often used.
Text Bound lessons
In the text- bound instruction is analyzing texts in the foreground. For text analysis is one of the accurate reading, the structuring of the text, the working out of the main theses and reconstructing arguments.
Writing philosophical texts
To write philosophical texts in the classroom include writing protocols of discussion, comments and statements, dialogues, letters, and essays.
In the role play, the participants try to play a situation so they're feeling in their role.
In the text, theater, the actors should interpret a present text and make up their own minds by staging significantly.
Philosophy in the film
Starting point of a discussion can be editing a philosophical question in a movie. As a film in the classroom, for example, Matrix and Memento are.
Areas of expertise
One can determine the destination of teaching philosophy, among other things, that specifies the competencies to be acquired in the classroom. There are different views.
According to Michel Tozzi these are to problematize the three basic skills, statements, concepts or questions to conceptualize concepts and conceptual distinctions and to argue rationally.
According to Karel van der Leuuw and Pieter Mostert 's expertise can be analyzed as the " realization of a coherent conceptual tools ".
According to Anita Rösch there are a total of 16 for the secondary skills:
- Perception and understanding perception of competence
- Perspective taking
- Intercultural Competence
- Analyzing and reflecting text competence
- Language (analytical ) skills
- Interdisciplinary competence
- Critical Thinking
- Reasoning and judgments Reasoning and judgment skills
- Moral judgment
- Ethical judgment competence
- Interact and self- Share discourse competence
- Presentation skills
- Conflict resolution
- Self- orienting and action orientation skills
- Leadership Skills
Philosophy with Children
The teaching of argumentative and general cognitive abilities of children are called philosophizing with children. Whether it already is philosophizing or precursors thereof, is a matter of didactics of philosophy with children. In the teaching of philosophy methods to stimulate creative thought, expression of ideas and conversation skills are developed with children.
History of Didactics
In the 18th and 19th century, Immanuel Kant and Hegel important contributions to the subject didactics have delivered philosophy. Since the beginning of the modern high school in the 19th century up to the 1970s, the subject didactics was mainly dominated by the debate about the legitimacy of the tray. In the 1970s, there was a renewal of the subject didactics, including by Wolfgang Deppe, Rudolf Lassahn, Ekkehard Martens and Wulff Rehfus.
Didactics at the University of
The subject didactics is part of the training to the teachers of philosophy. In Germany there are a small number of professorships in subject didactics. Professors teaching methodology are Ekkehard Martens, John Rohbeck, Volker Steenblock, Kirsten Meyer, Markus Tiedemann, Klaus Blesenkemper and Christian Thein.