Piano Concerto No. 20 (Mozart)
The 20th Piano Concerto in D minor, K. 466 is a piano concerto by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. After deviating census, it is the 14th piano concerto by Mozart.
The 20th piano concerto was written in February 1785 in Vienna. It is considered the first so-called symphonic concert of Mozart. This first minor concerto Mozart breaks through the barriers of society art final. One day after the completion of the piano concerto was " to Mehlgrube " premiered on February 11, 1785 in Vienna Casino, where Mozart himself took the solo part. Leopold Mozart, who was present at the first performance, expressed in a letter to Mozart's sister praised the concert. Presumably Joseph Haydn was present at the premiere.
About the Music
Solo piano, flute, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, strings
1st movement: Allegro
The exposition begins in sombre mood with threatening ascending bass to give the surging syncopations in the strings. It can first recognize no characteristic melody, as it was common in classical music, but it is caused by the syncopation and triplet upbeats of the strings a restless, gloomy mood. Piecewise come with long sustained notes to the woodwinds. In bar 16 the complete orchestral tutti in the gloomy melody right one. A lyrical second theme, which can enforce barely, is then presented in the woodwinds in F major. The solo exposition begins with a long entrée before the main theme in D minor appears. It seems as need the solo piano several attempts for the intonation of thought. Both subjects experienced great add-ons which are by size to almost own topics. The development begins with the first motive of the solo exposition and runs thematically. The first theme is these studies often being reduced to the triplet kick off the lower strings. A gritty and powerful piano phrase leads to the recapitulation, in which the topics are changed ausschmückend by the accompanying piano. A longer trailer leads to the solo cadenza. For this there is no original piano concerto cadenza of Mozart, so that is usually played by Ludwig van Beethoven. The following Schlussritornell refers to the end of melodrama Ariadne auf Naxos by Georg Anton Benda. The set fades, unusually, in piano with softly throbbing d- minor chords. The musical conflict resolution has not been reached and was postponed to the following sentences.
2nd movement: Romance
The second set is already by key ( B flat major ) and through the rest that he radiates, a contrast to the dark troubled first sentence. The sentence is written in small rondo form, which is indeed unusual for concert - middle movements, but is to be found in Mozart now and then. The main theme is presented by the solo piano and has a simple, song-like form. The material appeared already in the implementation of the first set, what the content links of rates showing each other. The first couplet is led by melodic piano and accompanied by waving string chords. It is the character of the chorus very similar topic and ends with a small codetta. The second couplet, however, brings a dramatic climax and great contrast to the rest of the sentence. It is in G minor, the Tonikaparallele to B flat major. Virtuoso semiquaver arpeggios in the piano respond to Forte chords of the orchestra. However, over slower triplets the music quickly returns to the song-like refrain topic. This characteristic style the romance ends after a short coda.
3rd movement: Allegro assai
The final movement is once more an amalgamation of rondo and sonata form dar. The fierce anger and the dynamics of the set have much to Ludwig van Beethoven. The solo piano introduces the forward-pressing d- minor theme, which is soon taken out and formulated by the orchestra. The piano then brings a new thought, which is the content still belongs to the chorus theme and called complementary main theme. In the first couplet the woodwinds introduce a fast song-like major ideas of optimistic character. The recurring refrain but accompanying horn chords again increase the drama. It follows that, contrary usually no second couplet but an implementation process which chorus and first couplet extensively. Every now and give re-emerging major elements, which take over the minor issues, the events lucid moments. Following is a brief and virtuosic cadenza. In the coda, the brass theme from the first couplet sets and performs the moving set to a jubilant end in D major.
The 20th Piano Concerto is in many respects a new quality and form of Mozart's piano concerto dar. It is the first of its concerts, which is counted to the symphonic piano concertos. Not later than the 19th piano concerto itself this had indicated with large, distinctive orchestral passages and occasional accompaniment function of the solo piano. The 20th Piano Concerto is to the effect a similar breakthrough, as the 15th Piano Concerto KV 450 had mean for the new, great form of Mozart's concerts. The plant is the first of only two piano concertos that Mozart wrote in a minor key. Together with the resulting in the following year 24 Piano Concerto KV 491 in C Minor, thereby it takes a special position in his work. The key of D minor has it. Together with works like the Requiem KV 626 and the sinking scene from Don Giovanni This key is Mozart for biggest drama and expressiveness. A piano concert in the intensity of the drama has not previously existed in Mozart's oeuvre. Precisely herein, the concert significantly to the creation of Beethoven out, especially on the 3rd Piano Concerto in C minor. Thus, the concert also enjoyed great popularity with Beethoven, who often played the work and two cadenzas for the first and last sentence was written. Johannes Brahms also wrote later for the first movement of the concerto a cadence. Notably, ending piano the main clause, which rarely occurs in Mozart and at first glance does not match the dramatic character of the work. Rather, it puts a large-scale content- linking of sentences between them. The solution of the conflicts sparked musical is moved to the other sets of the concert. This approach of an artistic overall concept will prevail in the following musical eras to perfection. Mozart has the latest overcome with this d- minor Concerto, the obligation of the music entertainment ideals and found to freedom of the individual artist. In this way, the Concerto K. 466 is one of the pioneers of future musical eras.