Pinna (anatomy)

As pinna ( auricle Latin auris ) of the external part of the ear is called.

Anatomy and function

The ears of man are formed individually. The mobility of the ear cups is mediated by the ear muscles, but is greatly reduced in humans. The ear is made of elastic cartilage, and is covered by the outer skin. The lymphatic drainage is via the Lnn. retroauriculares and Lnn. parotid.

So it was in forensics approaches people in the form of their ear to recognize the respective wells and surveys. The pinna is similar individual as fingerprints.

The relief of the ear with its folds and depressions is a natural filtration system for the incoming sound. The sound is broken at the relief edges of the ear and thus - depending on its frequency components - various damped. This modulation of the brain can obtain information about the spatial origin of a sound source, in particular if a sound from the front, the rear, comes up or down

The shape and size of the ear cups are also for the overall visual impression of the face towards the viewer of often underestimated importance.


The lobe (Latin auriculae lobule ) is the soft fleshy part of the lower ear and has the function of a resonant body. The earlobe is not very sensitive to pain ( self-experiments by tweaking will confirm this ), and is therefore often used by a puncture for blood drops loss for laboratory use.

Human earlobes may be free ( from the head or ear hanging) or grown. Accreted earlobes are genetically recessive, dominant are free. The dominant, free lobe come in the population twice as often as the grown. In the Middle Ages people believed, had grown earlobe featured witches. Therefore, the nurses separated newborns - especially the girls - the earlobe through a small incision some distance from the head.

The importance of the earlobe as erogenous zone is also evident in earrings, ear-rings and piercings.

Auricles and artificial head stereophonic

In the artificial head recording technique ( binaural recording ) into a simulated head with ears to the point of the ear canal (not the tympanic membrane ) installed microphones in order to bring the listener a true to the original as possible listening experience over headphones. For larger differences between the ears of the artificial head and his own ears, there are problems in the direction of the artificial head localization performance. Especially the front- directions appear diagonally upwards up to 30 ° raised (elevation) or to locate the rear alone. When listening with headphones are the one's ears "turned off".